Factors Influencing Employee’s Turnover and Their Effects in the Malaysian Private Sector

  • Nasiru Saidu Department of Business Administration, Bauchi State University Gadau, Nigeria
Keywords: Employee Turnover, Carrier Promotion, Price, Personality, Job Match Private Sector.


The word “employee turnover is a crucial metric that is frequently integral to organizations’ personnel arranging and policy. The main rationale of this study is to discover out the legitimate reasons behind employees turnover and its consequences on the productivity of Malaysian manufacturing industries. Based on the indication of the coefficient shows that, the inverse relationship between the turnover intension, carrier promotion, price, personality and job match. On the off chance that the satisfaction level of utilizes in regards to their occupation is elevated, the turnover aim will be stumpy. More over if the level of carrier promotion, price, personality and job match is low; the widrawal intension will be higher. The paper recommend that management ought to utilize both sorts of compensation (Financial and non-Financial), appealing  package, convince allowance, group insurance, medical allowance, benevolent fund,  house rent, gratuity, and pension in financial remuneration and also match a job with the person caring out the job. The limitations of the study is that respondents are selected only faculty members of private business institutions on  convenience premise, speculation for the entire populace is not flawlessly fulfilled although random sampling is applied.


Download data is not yet available.


Ali Mohammad M, & Rad Mohammad H Y (2006),"A study of relationship between managers' leadership style and employees' job satisfaction", Leadership in Health Services, Vol. 19 Iss 2 pp. 11 – 28.
Allen, D.G., L.M. Shore and R.W. Griffeth, 2003. The Role of Perceived Organizational Support and Supportive Human Resource Practices in the Turnover Process?, Journal of Management, 9(1): 99-118.
Argote, L., S.L. Beckman and D. Epple, 1990. The persistence and transfer of learning in industrial settings. Management Sci., 36: 140-154.
Asia Times. 2006. No stopping Asia. www.atimes.com, Accessed Feb. 6, 2006.
AsiaNews.IT. 2006. Labour shortage at Aceh. www.asianews.it, Accessed Feb. 6, 2006.
Boxall, P. and J. Purcell, 2003. Strategy and Human Investigation of Turnover and Macmillan.
Blau, P. M. (1964). Exchange and power in social life. Transaction Publishers.
Bratton, J. and J. Gold, 2003. Human Resources the Eastern Cape Department of Health. Masters Management Theory and Practice, 3rd edition, New York, Palgrave Macmillan.
Buhler, P., 2002. Human Resources Management, Avon: F+W Publications Inc.
Chiu, R.K., V.W.M. Luk and T.L. Tang, 2002.Retaining and Motivating Employees: Compensation Preferences in Hong Kong and China. Personnel Review, 31: 402-31.
Curran, S.R., 2012. Assessing employee turnover in, the Language Services Section of Parliament of the Republic of South Africa. Master’s Thesis. University of Stellenbosch.
Egan, T.M., B. Yang and K.R. Bartlett, 2004. The satisfaction on motivation to transfer learning and turnover intention. Human Resource Development Quarterly.15 (3): 279-301.
Griffeth, R. W., Hom, P. W., & Gaertner, S. 2000. A meta-analysis of antecedents and correlates of employee turnover: Update, moderator tests, and research implications for the millennium. Journal of Management, 26: 463–488.
Grobler, P.A., M. Carell, N.F. Elbert, R.D. Hatfield, M. Marx and S. Vander Schyf, 1998. Human Resource Management in South Africa. Prentice Hall Inc
Harkins, P.J., 1998. Why Employees Stay--or Go. Workforce, 77(10): 74-78
Holtom, B. C., Mitchell, T. R., Lee, T. W., & Inderrieden, E. J. 2005. Shocks as causes of turnover: What they are and how organizations can manage them. Human Resource Management, 44(3): 337–352.
Hom, P. W., & Griffeth, R. W. 1995. Employee turnover. Cincinnati: South/Western. IOM (International Organization for Migration). 2005. World migration 2005: Costs and benefits of international migration. Geneva: IOM.
Hom, P. W., & Kinicki, A. 2001. Toward a greater understanding of how dissatisfaction drives employee turnover. Academy of Management Journal, 44(5): 957–987.
Idson, T.L. and D.J. Feaster, 1990. A selectivity model of employer-size wage differentials. J. Labor Econ.,8: 99-122.
Ismail, M. N. and Lim, S. H. (2007). Effects of attitudes, job characteristics, and external market on employee turnover: A study of Malaysian information technology workers (Unpublished doctoral dissertation) University of Malaya.
Jackofsky, E. F., & Peters, L. H. 1983. Job turnover versus company turnover: Reassessment of the March and Simon participation hypothesis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 68: 490– 495.
Khatri, N., Chong, T. F., & Budhwar, P. 2001. Explaining employee turnover in an Asian context. Human Resource Management Journal, 11(1): 54–74. Mobley, W. H. 1977.
Lee, T. W., & Mitchell, T. R. 1994. An alternative approach: An unfolding model of voluntary employee turnover. Academy of Management Review, 19(1): 51–89.Lee, G. J., & Rwigema, H. 2005. Mobley revisited: Dynamism in the process of employee turnover. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 16(9): 1671–1690.
Lee, T. W., Mitchell, T. R., Holtom, B. C., McDaniel, L. S., & Hill, J. W. 1999. The unfolding model of voluntary turnover: A replication and extension. Academy of Management Journal, 42(4): 450–462.
Li, J. J. 2008. How to retain local senior managers in international joint ventures: The effects of alliance relationship characteristics. Journal of Business Research, 61(9): 986–994.
The Straits Times. 1999. Job-hopping still prevalent, MP tells house. March 16.
Luecke, R., 2002. Hiring and Keeping the Best People, Boston, Harvard Business School Publishing.
Lu Lu Allan C. C., Lu D G & Nathan R N, (2016),"Work engagement, job satisfaction, and turnover intentions", International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol. 28 Iss 4 pp. 737 – 76.
Manu Rita -Negrin and Shay S. Tzafrir, 2004. Job search modes and Turnover, Career Development Oxford University Press. International, (5): 442-446.
Mathis, J.E. and D.M. Jackson, 2004. A review and meta-analysis of the antecedents, correlates and consequences of commitment. Psychological and Bulletin, 108: 171-194.
Michael O, Samuel & C Chipunza (2009). Employee retention and turnover: Using motivational variables as a panacea. African Journal of Business Management .3 (8):410-415.
Mitchell, T. R., Holtom, B. C., Lee, T. W., Sablynski, C. J., & Erez, M. 2001. Why people stay: Using job embeddedness to predict voluntary turnover. Academy of Management Journal, 44(6): 1102–1121.
Mitchell, T. R., Holtom, B. C., Lee, T. W., Sablynski, C. J., & Erez, M. 2001. Why people stay: Using job embeddedness to predict voluntary turnover. Academy of Management Journal, 44(6): 1102–1121.
Mobley, W.H., R.W. Griffeth, H.H. Hand and B.M. Meglino, 1979. Review and conceptual analysis of the employee turnover process. Psychological Bulletin, 86: 493-522.
Mondy, R.W., 2010. Human resources management 11th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Mowday, R. T., Porter, L. W., & Steers, R. M. 1982. Employee-organization linkages: The psychology of commitment, absenteeism, and turnover. New York: Academic.
Mrara, M.T., 2010. An Investigation of Turnover and Retention Factors of Health Professional Staff within the Eastern Cape Department of Health. Masters Thesis. Rhodes University.
Nel, P.S., P.D. Gerber, P.S. Van Dyk, G.D. Haasbroek, H.B. Schultz, T. Sono and A. Werner, 2001. Human Resources Management, 5th Edition, Cape Town: Oxford University Press.
Noe, R.A., J.R. Hollenbeck, B. Gerhart and P.M. Wright, 2006. Human Resources Management
Gaining a Competitive Advantage.4thEdition, New York, McGraw Hill.
NSDC, 2010. SME Annual Report 2009/10: Transformation to the & New Economic Model. Kuala Lumpur: SME Corporation Malaysia.
O’Reilly, C.A., J. Chatman and D.F. Caldwell, 1991.People and organizational culture. A profile comparison approach to assessing person organization fir. Academy of Management Journal, 34: 487-516.
Peterson, S. L. 2004. Toward a theoretical model of employee turnover: A human resource development perspective. Human Resource Development Review, 3(3): 209–227.
March, J., & Simon, H. 1958. Organizations. New York: Wiley.
Price, J. L. 1977. The study of turnover. Ames: Iowa State University Press.
Price, J.L., 1989. The Impact of Turnover on the Organization. Work and Occupations, 16: 461- 473.
Staw, B. M. 1980. The consequences of turnover. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 1: 253– 273.
Steel, R.P., W.H. Hendrix and S. P. Balogh. 1990. Confounding effects of the turnover base rate on relations between time lag and turnover study outcomes: An extension of meta- analysis findings and conclusions. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 11: 237-42.
Wong, C.-S., Hui, C., & Law, K. S. 1995. Causal relationship between attitudinal antecedents to turnover. Academy of Management Journal, 342–346.
Weisberg, J. and A. Kirschenbaum, 2002. Gender and turnover: A re-examination of the impact of sex on intent and actual job changes. Human Relations, 46(8): 487-1006.
Weiss, H. M., & Cropanzano, R. (1996). Affective events theory: A theoretical discussion of the structure, causes and consequences of affective experiences at work.
Wozniak, L. 2003. Companies in China struggle to train, retain qualified managers. Wall Street Journal, December 30, A8. Intermediate linkages in the relationship between job satisfaction and employee turnover. Journal of Applied Psychology, 62: 237–240.
Yankeelov, P.A., A.P. Barbee, D. Sullivan and B.F. Antle, 2008. Individual and organizational factors Job retention in Kentucky’s Child welfare agency, Children and Youth Review, 31(5): 547-554.
How to Cite
Saidu, N. (2018). Factors Influencing Employee’s Turnover and Their Effects in the Malaysian Private Sector. International Journal of Business and Management Future, 2(1), 30-37. https://doi.org/10.46281/ijbmf.v2i1.117