Comparative Effectiveness of Self-Instructional Print Media and Conventional Teaching Method on Secondary School Students Achievement in Physics in Osun State

  • Oluseyi Abraham Olaniyi Department of Educational Technology, Faculty of Education, National Open University of Nigeria, PMB 80067, Victoria Island, Lagos, Nigeria
  • Moshood Ayinde Hassan Professor, Department of Adult Education, Faculty of Education, Adekunle Ajasin University, PMB 001, Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria
Keywords: Self- instructional Print Media (SIM), Conventional Teaching Method (CTM), Achievement, Effectiveness, programmed instruction, reinforcement, operant conditioning.


The current decline in the performance of secondary school students in Physics in the Senior School Certificate Examination (SSCE) has become a major concern for the stakeholders in the field of education. This may perhaps, be partly due to the strict adherence of Physics teachers to the use of conventional teaching method in teaching Physics. This study was therefore carried out with the aim of evaluating the comparative effectiveness of Self-instructional Print Media and the conventional teaching method on secondary school students’ achievement in Physics in Osun State. A non-randomised control group pretest-posttest quasi-experimental research design was adopted for the study. Self-Instructional Printed Material in Physics (SIPMP), Lesson Plan in Physics (LPP), Entry Behaviour Test in Physics (EBTP) and Achievement Test in Physics (ATP) were the research instruments used in this study. One hundred and seventy three (173) SSS II students from six intact classes of six purposively selected secondary schools in Osun State constituted the sample of the study. These students were randomly assigned into the three quasi-experimental groups, namely: Self-instructional Print Media alone (SIPM alone), Self-instructional Print Media with the conventional Teaching Method (SIPM with CTM) and the Conventional Teaching Method alone (CTM alone). The three groups were tested prior to and after their exposure to the experimental treatment. The data collected were analysed to answer the five research questions and test the four hypotheses raised for the study using mean scores, t-test, ANOVA and ANCOVA at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of this study indicated that the three groups were equivalent or homogeneous prior to the application of the experimental treatment. The three groups also recorded significant improvement in their achievement in physics after being exposed to the experimental treatments. However, the students that were exposed to the self-instructional print media (whether independently or conjointly with the conventional teaching method) significantly outshone their counterparts that were taken through the conventional teaching method alone. Based on these findings, secondary school physics teachers were admonished to embrace the use of self-instructional print media to promote effective and efficient teaching and learning of Physics. They were also encouraged not to completely abandon the use of the conventional teaching method.


Abida, K. and Muhammad, A. (2012). Constructivist Vs Traditional: Effective Instructional Approach in Teacher Education. International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2(5).

Adani, A., Eskay, M. and Onu, V. (2012). Effect of Self-Instructional Strategy on the Achievement in Algebra of Students with Learning Difficulty in Mathematics. Us China Education Review, 1006-1021.

Adedayo, J. O. (2008). Effect of Electronic Artisan’s Background and Competence in Science and Technology Advancement in Nigeria. Research in Curriculum Studies. 5(1). 132-136.

Agun, I. and Imoge, I. (Eds.). Fundamentals of Educational Technology. Ibadan; Y-Books, A Division of Associated Book Makers Nigeria Limited.

Ajayi, P. O. (2013). Comparative Analysis of the Intended and the Achieved Senior Secondary School Physics Curriculum in Nigeria.

Alena, L. and Marina, D. (2012). Problem-Based Teaching vs. Programmed Teaching: Challenges for the Future of Education. International Conference. The Future of Education. 2nd Edition.

Anderson, T. and Fretzin, L. (2004). Programmed Instruction.

Annett, J. (1964). The Role of Knowledge of Result in Learning. A survey. In Educational Technology Dececco (ed.), Holt, Rinehart & Winston. 279-285.

Asoko, H. (2000). Learning to Teach Science in the Primary School. Improving Science Education. Buckingham; Open University Press, 5, 79-93.

Bert, Y. Kersh. (1965). Programming Classroom Instruction. In Rober Glaser (ed.), Teaching Machine and Programmed Learning II. Washington, D. C.; National Education Association, 1965.

Christopher, P. (2015). Instructional Design Models and Theories: Communication Theory .Retrieved from: concepts/instructional-design

Crowder, N. A. (1967). Automatic Tutoring by Intrinsic Programming. In Galanter E. H. (ed.). Automatic Teaching; the State of the Art. New York; Willey. 109-116.

Curti, Merle (1935). The Social Ideal of American Educators. Pp 459-98

Dale, S. H. (2012). Learning Theories. An Educational Perspective. Boston; Allyn and Bacon

Deborah, A. S. (1997; 2004). Self-regulated Learning during Non-Linear Self-Instruction in Educational Psychology. Michigan; Michigan State University.

Emovo, E. U. (1985). Sciencing. The Nigerian Experience. The practice of Science in Nigeria. 26th Annual Conference Proceedings of STAN.

Federal Republic of Nigeria, National Policy on Education. Yaba, Lagos; the National Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC) Press, 2004, Fourth Edition.

Feldman, M. A., Case, L. and Ducharme, J. M. (1999). Using Self-Instructional Pictorial Manuals to Teach Child-Care Skills to Mothers with Intellectual Disabilities.BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION,23(3),480-497. Retrieved from

Ferguson, K. (2010). Inquiry Based Mathematics Instruction versus Traditional Mathematics Instruction: The Effect on Students’ Understanding and Comprehension in an Eight Grade Pre-Algebra Classroom. Master of Education Thesis & Report. Cedarville University.

Henning, P. (1998). Everyday Cognition and Situated Learning. In Jonassen, D. (Ed.),

Handbook of Research on Educational Communication and Technology. (2nd Ed.).New York; Simon and Schuster.

Henry, H. E. (2006). Assessing the Effectiveness of Programmed Instruction and Collaborative Peer Tutoring in Teaching Java. International Journal of Information and Communication Technology Education. 2(2).

Hilgard, E. R. (1966). Learning & the Technology of Instruction. In Hilgard E. R. and Bower

G. H. 1966. Theories of Learning. New York; Appleton-Century-Croft, 3rd ed. P. 554-561

Holland, J. G. and Skinner B. F. (1961). The analysis of Behaviour. New York; McGraw Hill.

Huit, W. & Hummel, J. (1977). An Introduction to operant (instrumental) conditioning. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdesta; Valdesta State University. Retrieved from

Ivowi, UMO (1982). Evaluation of Students Achievement in CESAC Science Subjects. CESAC occasional Papers No. 3, De-Sunshine International Publishing Company,Lagos.

Jadav, R. M. (2014). A study of the Effectiveness of Self-Instructional Material for Higher Education. Research Hub- International Multidisciplinary Research Journal.1(5). Retrieved from:

Jaehnig, W. and Miller, M. L. (2007). Feedback Types in Programmed Instruction: A Systematic Review. The Psychological Record, 57, 219-232.

Jegede, S. A. and Adedayo, J. O. (2013). Enriching Physics Education in Nigeria towards Enhancing a Sustainable Technological Development. Greener Journal of Educational Research. 3(2), PP. 080-084.

Labo-Popoola Q. T. A. (2005). “Effect of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) and Class Size on Learners’ Interaction and Acquisition of Problem Solving Skills in Physics.Unpublished Project Report: Master Degree in Educational Technology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife.

Laurie, M. Brown (2016). Physics: Science. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved from

Leith, G. O. M. (1966). Survey of Programmed Techniques. Visual Education Year Book. NCAVAE.

Lewis, Roger (1981). How to Write Self-Study Material, Council for Educational Technology, Cambridge.

Lockee, B. B. Moore, D. M. & Burton J. K. (2001). Old Concern with New Distance Education Research. Educause Quarterly, 24, 60-62.

Lockwood, F. (1997). Developing Self-Instructional Material for Open, Distance and Flexible Learning. Pre ICDE Conference Workshop Report, Pennslyvania State University.

Lord, Thomas R. (1999). A Comparison between Traditional and Constructivist Teaching in Environmental Science. Journal of Environmental Education. Vol. 30, No. 3: 22-28.

Lumsdaine, A. A. (1963). Instrument and Media of Instruction. In N. L. Gage (ed.).

Handbook of Research on Teaching. Chicago; AERA and Rand McNally. 583-682

Marguilies, S. & Eigen L. D. (1961). Applied Programmed Instruction. New York; Willey.

Markel, S. M. (1969). Good Frames and Bad: a grammar of frame writing. 2nd ed. New York. Wiley. Chapter 1 & 4.

Martin, B. and Eugenio, E. (1992). Study in Philosophy for Children Harry Stottlemeirer’s Discovery. Edited by Ann Margaret Sharp and Ronald F. Reed (1992). Temple University Press. Chapter 8, pp. 64-78.

McLeod, S. A. (2015). Skinner-Operant Conditioning. Retrieved from:

Medler, David A. (1998). A brief History of Connectionism. Neural Computing Survey, 1(2), p. 18-72.

National Open University of Nigeria (2009). Advanced Psychology of Learning. Lagos, National Open University of Nigeria Press

National Teachers’ Institute (2007). General Principles and Methods in Education. Kaduna, National Teachers’ Institute. Page 97.

Nelkon, M. (1997). Principle of Physics. Lagos; CSS Bookshops and Hart-Davis Educational Limited. P. 1-5.

Nuhu O.Y. (2016). Open and Distance Education in Relation to Socio-Economic Development. 5th National Open University Convocation Lecture. Abuja.

Nwafor, O. (2007). Educational Innovation: Process and Product. Enugu. Magnet Business Enterprises.

Obi, T. E. C. (2001). The Theoretical Framework of Multi-media Instructional Approach,Uyo; University of Uyo Journal of National Association of Women Academics.2 (1), 36-41.

Ogunni, O. I. and Owolabi, O. T. (n.d.). Integration of Programmed Instruction into Mathematics and Science Teaching: A Panacea to Students Dwindling Interest in Mathematics and Science in Nigerian Schools. European Journal of Educational Research, 1(3)199-209.

Ogunniyi, M. B. (1986). Secondary School Science Teaching in Africa. Ibadan, University Press Plc.

Omosewo, E. O. (1999). Relative Effect of Planned Post-Laboratory Discussion on Students’ Achievement in Physics. Journal of Educational Foundations, 4(2). 161-121.

Omosewo, E. O. (2012). Attitude of Teachers towards Utilizing Community Resources in Physics in Abuja, Nigeria.

Peggy, A. (2013). The difference between Classical and Operant Conditioning. Retrieved from:

Premack, D. (1962). Reversibility of Reinforcement relation. Science, 136, 255-257.

Premack, D. (1971). Catching up with the Common Sense or Two Sides of a Generalization: Reinforcement and Punishment. In R. Glaser (Ed.), The nature of the reinforcement. New York; Academic Press. Pp. 121-150

Pressey, S. L. (1926). A simple Apparatus which gives test and score and teaches. Schools and Society. 23, 373-6

Pressey, S. L. (1927). A machine for Automatic Teaching of Drill Material. School and Society, 25 (645), 549-552.

Pressey, S. L. (1932). A third and Fourth Contribution towards the Coming of “Industrial Revolution” in Education. School and Society. 36 (934), 668-672.

Quasim, S., Imtiaz, Z. and Alvi, U. (2014). Review of True Experimental Research Studies in Applied Linguistic. Research on Humanities and Social Science, 4,(22).

Reed, F. D. and Lovett, B. J. (2008). Views on the Efficacy and Ethics of Punishment: Result from the National Survey. International Journal of Behavioural Consultation and Therapy. 4(1),61-67.

Richard, C. (2015). Connectionism (Edward Thorndike). Retrieved from:

Rowntree, D. (1966). Basically Branching. London, Kogan Page, 2nd ed.

Rowntree, D. (1986). Teaching through Self-Instruction; How to Develop Open Learning Material London; Kogan Page. 2nd ed.

Rowntree, D. (1994). Preparing Material for Open, Distance and Flexible Learning: An action Guide for Teachers and Trainers. London; Kogan Page.

Sadeghi, R., Sedaghat, M. M. and Ahmadi, F. S. (2014). Comparison of the Effect of Lecture and Blended Teaching Methods on Students’ Learning and Satisfaction. J Adv Med Educ Prof, 2(4).

Sadowski, K. (2012). The Difference between Positive and Negative Punishment. Retrieved from: punishment/

Sansanwal, D. N. (1978). “An Experimental Study in Programmed Learning for Teaching Research Methodology at M.Ed. Level”. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, M. S. University, Baroda.

Sara Mae Sincero (2011). Operant Conditioning. Retrieved from

Schultz, W. (2006). Behavioural Theories and Neurophysiology of Reward. Annual Review of Psychology. 57, 87-115.

Shaik, F. (2013). Thinking of Programmed Instructional Design: Need of Today’s Learner. International Journal of Modern Engineering Research .3(2),1056-1060.

Sharma, A. and Sansanwal, D. N. (2002). Comparison among Video-based Instructional Strategies for Teaching Science at Class IX Level in Terms of Achievement. Indian Educational Abstract, NCERT, Vol. 3. No 1, P. 31-32.

Sharma, Hermant L. “Development of Self-Instructional Print Material for Distance Education Learners (M.Ed.) in Statistics”. Unpublished Project Report: Diploma in Distance Education, IGNOU, New Delhi.

Skinner, B. F. (1938). The Behaviour of Organism: An experimental analysis. New York, Appleton-Century.

Skinner, B. F. (1948). Superstition in the Pigeon. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 38, 169-172

Skinner, B. F. (1951). How to Teach Animals; Freeman

Skinner, B. F. (1958). Teaching Maching. Science, 128 (3330), 969-977.

Skinner, B.F. (1953). Science and Human Behaviour. New York; Simon and Schuster .com

Stroud, K. A. (2001), Engineering Mathematics, London; Palgrave.

Suman, C. and Neelam, D. (2013). Comparative Study of Computer Assisted Instruction Technique (CAI) on the Achievement of Pupil Teachers in Methods of Teaching English Language. MIER Journal of Educational Studies, Trends and Practices,3(1),07-118.

Sushma, T. (2014). Comparative Effectiveness of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) with Traditional Instruction at the Teacher Training Level. International Journal of Research, 1(9).

The New Encyclopedia Britannica, 2014. Science. Retrieved from:

Thorndike, E. et al. (1928). Adult Learning. New York; Macmillan.

Thorndike, E. L. (1905). The Element of Psychology. New York; A. G. Seiler.

Thorndike, E. L. (1911). Animal Intelligence. New York; Macmillan

Thorndike, E. L. (1912). Education: A First Book. New York; The Macmillan Company.

Thorndike, E. L. (1913). The Psychology of Learning. New York; Teachers College Press.

Thorndike, E. L. (1921). The Teachers Workbook. New York; Teachers College Press.

Thorndike, E. L. (1922). The Psychology of Arithmetic. New York; Techers College Press.

Thorndike, E. L. (1932). The Fundamentals of Learning. New York; Teachers College Press.

Udo, M. E. (2011). Effect of Problem Solving, Guided-Discovery and Expository Teaching Strategy on Students’ Performance in Redox Reaction. African Strategy Review,5(4). Retrieved from

Unwin, D. (1967). The Changing Concept of Programmed Material Criterial for Categorization. In Tobin M. J. (ed.). Problems and Methods in Programmed Learning I. National Centre for Programmed Learning , Birmingham.

Weilbell, E. L. (2011). Principles of learning: 7 Principles to guide personalized, student centered learning in the technology-enhanced, blended learning environment. Retrieved from

Yusuf, M. O. and Afolabi, A. O. (2010). Effect of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) on Secondary School Students’ Performance in Biology. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology,9(1),62-69.

How to Cite
Olaniyi, O. A., & Hassan, M. A. (2019). Comparative Effectiveness of Self-Instructional Print Media and Conventional Teaching Method on Secondary School Students Achievement in Physics in Osun State. American International Journal of Social Science Research, 4(2), 53-68.
Research Paper/Theoretical Paper/Review Paper/Short Communication Paper