• Ramil Alejo Santos Professor, National University Philippines; Graduate School Student, Graduate School Department, Bulacan State University, Bulacan, Philippines
  • Luisito Manalansan Nanquil Professor, Graduate School Department, Bulacan State University, Bulacan, Philippines
Keywords: Literature, Literature Classroom, Popular Culture, Teaching Model.


Popular culture’s integration with language lessons, particularly in literature lessons, is a practice already being employed by teachers. Earlier studies, both local and international, were already conducted, integrating pop culture references and materials in the literature classroom: memes, shows, music, games, among others, and groundworks about the approaches in teaching literature and different models in teaching exist but no studies have suggested a teaching model based on the integration of said variables. The current study tried to formulate a basis for a teaching model based on the integration of popular culture and literature lessons. English teachers at the secondary level, especially those who worked in public or private schools in Malolos, Bulacan, were asked how they incorporate pop culture into their literature classes, what challenges they face, and how they deal with them. The study utilized a qualitative ethnographic approach based on the etic perspective. For the investigation, a triangulation method was used. This includes evaluating the teacher-informants' responses to the provided structured essay questions, conducting a focus group discussion, and comparing literature and studies on popular culture and literature instruction. The discussion sharing and the replies to the essay questions were compared to Weil and Joyce's (1973) guidelines for a teaching model. The findings produced a model of teaching based on the specifications of environment, operation, procedure, and learning outcomes.

JEL Classification Codes: G32, F65, L66, L25, M41.


Baxter, J. (2019). Using Pop Culture to Improve Teacher-Student Relationships. [Capstone Projects and Master’s Thesis, California State University]. Digital Commons. Retrieved from

Bingham, T. (2009). Learning gets social. T&D, 3(8), 56-63. Retrieved from

Blommaert, J. (2013). Ethnography, Superdiversity and Linguistic Landscapes. In Ethnography, Superdiversity and Linguistic Landscapes. Multilingual Matters.

Carter, R., & Michael, N. (2003). Long, MN (1991), Teaching Literature. Harlow: Longman. Celce Murcia, M, 3-9.

Carter, R. A., & McNae, J. (1996). Language, Literature and the Learner. Longman.

Clapton, W. (2015). Pedagogy and Pop Culture: Pop Culture as Teaching Tool and Assessment Practice. Retrieved from

Dickie, J., & Shuker, M. (2014). Ben 10, superheroes and princesses: Primary teachers' views of popular culture and school literacy. Literacy, 48(1), 32-38.

Fallon, M., & Forrest, S. (2011). High-tech versus low-tech instructional strategies: A comparison of clickers and handheld response cards. Teaching of Psychology, 38, 194-198.

Hartman, P., Berg, J., Fulton, H. R., & Schuler, B. (2021). Memes as means: Using popular culture to enhance the study of literature. The Journal of the Assembly for Expanded Perspectives on Learning, 26(1), 66-82.

Hwang, D., & Embi, M. A. (2007). Approaches Employed by Secondary School Teachers to Teaching the Literature. Jurnal Pendidik dan Pendidikan, 22, 1–23.
Ibe, O. (2019). Delineations of Popular Culture. South-South Journal of Humanities and International Studies, 2(2), 175-195.

Johnson, E. (2012). Performative politics and radical possibilities: Re-framing pop culture text work in schools. Journal of Curriculum Theorizing, 28(1), 158–174.
Littlewood, W. (2000). Literature and Language Teaching, edited Brumfit, C.J. Oxford University Press.

Lo, M. M. (2013). Negotiating task, text and new literacies in online comic strips. In P. Benson & A. Chik (Eds.), Popular culture, pedagogy and teacher education: International perspectives (pp. 166–179). Routledge

Maheshwari, D. K. (2013). Models of Teaching. Retrieved from

Maudlin, J. & Sandlin, J. (2015). Pop Culture Pedagogies: Process and Praxis. Educational Studies, 51(5), 368-384.

Mills, K. A. (2009). Multiliteracies: Interrogating competing discourses. Language and Education, 23(2), 103-116.

Murphy, J. M. (2014). Intelligible, comprehensible, non-native models in ESL/EFL pronunciation teaching. System, 42, 258–269.

Mustakim, S. S., Mustapha, R., & Lebar, O. (2018). Teacher’s approaches in teaching literature: Observations of ESL classroom. MOJES: Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Sciences, 2(4), 35-44.

Nielsen, E. J. (2019). Becoming: Genre, Queerness, and Transformation in NBC’s Hannibal (Television and Popular Culture). Syracuse University Press.

Pugliatti, P. (2013). People and the Popular, Culture and the Cultural. Journal of Early Modern Studies, 2, 19-42.

Rosenblatt, L. M. (1978). The Reader, the Text, the Poem: the Transactional Theory of the Literary Work. Southern Illinois University Press.

Richards, J. (1969). Songs in language learning. TESOL Quarterly, 3(2), 161–174.

Rets, I. (2016). Teachers’ Perceptions on Using Popular Culture when Teaching and Learning English. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 232, 154-160.

Rothoni, A. (2017). The interplay of global forms of pop culture and media in teenagers’ ‘interest-driven’ everyday literacy practices with English in Greece. Linguistics and Education, 38(1), 92-103.

Shriner, M., Clark, D., Nail, M., Schlee, B., & Libler, R. (2010). Social studies instruction: Changing teacher confidence in classroom enhanced by technology. The Social Studies, 101, 27-45.

Visco, W. (2021). Popping Pedagogy: Making Your Classroom (Tradition and Virtual) Pop with Pop Culture. English in Texas (TCTELA), 51(1) 26-30.

Weil, M. & Joyce, B. (1978). Social Models of Teaching: Expanding your Teaching Repertoire. Prentice-Hall.
Werner, V. (2018). The Language of Pop Culture (1st ed.) Routledge.
How to Cite
Santos, R. A., & Nanquil, L. M. (2023). INTEGRATING POPULAR CULTURE IN THE LITERATURE CLASSROOM: BASIS FOR A TEACHING MODEL. American International Journal of Social Science Research, 14(1), 9-19.
Original Articles/Review Articles/Case Reports/Short Communications