Review on Sects and Religions in History of Iraq

  • Muayad Baqer Mohammed Alfahham Lecturer in Contemporary Islamic History Field, Department of Power Mechanics, Najaf Engineering Technical College, Alfurat Al-awsat Technical University, Iraq
Keywords: City, Century, Mix


Every tribe in Iraq has (Sunnis ,Sheia , the Yazidis, Turkmen, Armen,…) in its ranks. Every town and city have a mix of communities. My experience of Iraq, and that of all friends and relatives, is that of an amazing mix of coexisting communities, despite successive divide-and-rule regimes. For many centuries Iraq has been able to allow a religious, cultural and ethnic diversity to exist. Marred and disfigured as it undoubtedly has been from time to time by savage sectarian outbursts it has managed to stand the test of time. And now in a matter of months it is being swept away probably forever in an unimaginably brutal way. This is not only a terrible tragedy for each of those involved it is an historic tragedy for the world as yet another part of the finely woven tapestry of human complexity and coexistence is ripped to shreds. It is easier and quicker by far to destroy, and to call for destruction, than it is to build.


Ammar, J., & Xu, S. (2018). Who speaks for Islam? Extreme religious groups, the exception that proves the rule. In When Jihadi ideology meets social media (pp. 1-16). Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan.

Archambault, I., Janosz, M., Dupéré, V., Brault, M. C., & Andrew, M. M. (2017). Individual, social, and family factors associated with high school dropout among low SES youth: Differential effects as a function of immigrant status. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 87(3), 456-477. doi: 10.1111/bjep.12159.

Angus Martyn, The Right of Self-Defence under International Law-the Response to the Terrorist Attacks of 11 September, Australian Law and Bills Digest Group, Parliament of Australia Web Site, 12 February 2002. Archived 16 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine.

Aust, Anthony. (2010). Handbook of International Law (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 265. ISBN 978-0-521-13349-4.

Arie W. Kruglanski & Shira Fishman Current Directions in Psychological Science Vol. 15, No. 1 (Feb., 2006), pp. 45–48

Bruce Hoffman, Inside Terrorism, 2 ed., Columbia University Press, 2006, p. 34.

Bergen, P., Schuster, C., & Sterman, D. (2015). ISIS in the West: The new faces of extremism. Washington, DC: New America.

Bates, Benjamin R. (2004) .Audiences, Metaphors, and the Persian Gulf War’, Communication Studies, 55(3), 447-463.

Beer, Francis A. & De Landtsheer, Christ’l (2004) ‘Metaphors, Politics, and World Politics’, in beer, Francis A. and De landtsheer, Christ’l (eds.) Metaphorical World Politics, east lansing: Michigan State university Press, pp. 5-52.

Bhatia, A. (2009) ‘The Discourse of Terrorism’, Journal of Pragmatics, 41 (2), 279–289.

Burke, Kenneth. (1945). A Grammar of Motives, berkley: university of California Press.

Benjamin, Daniel. (2000). America and the New Terrorism, Survival, 42 (1), 59-75.

Bruce Hoffman (1998). "Inside Terrorism". Columbia University Press. p. 32. ISBN 0-231-11468-0. Retrieved January 11, 2010. Google cached copy

Bruce Hoffman (1998). "Inside Terrorism". The New York Times. Retrieved January 11, 2010.

Bockstette, Carsten (2008). "Jihadist Terrorist Use of Strategic Communication Management Techniques" (PDF). George C. Marshall Center Occasional Paper Series (20). ISSN 1863-6039. Retrieved January 1, 2009.

Bardach, Ann Louis; Rohter, Larry (July 13, 1998). "A Bomber's Tale: Decades of Intrigue". The New York Times. The New York Times Company.

Charteris-Black,Jonathan. (2004). Corpus Approaches to Critical Metaphor Analysis, basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Chilton, Paul. (1996). Security Metaphors: Cold War Discourse from Containment to Common House, New york: Peter lang.

Chilton, Paul and Lakoff, George. (1999). Foreign Policy by Metaphor, in Schäffner, Christina and Wenden, Anita (eds.) Language and Peace, Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Publishers, pp. 37-59.

Copeland, Thomas. (2001). Is the New Terrorism Really New? An Analysis of the New Paradigm for Terrorism, Journal of Conflict Studies XXi (2), 91-105.

Craft, Stephanie & Wanta, Wayne. (2004). ‘U.S. public concerns in the aftermath of 9/11: A Test of Second level Agenda-Setting’, International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 16 (4), 456-463.

Chen, P., Voisin, D. R., & Jacobson, K. C. (2016). Community violence exposure and adolescent delinquency: Examining a spectrum of promotive factors. Youth & Society, 48(1), 33-57. doi: 10.1177/0044118X13475827.

Crawford, Joseph (September 12, 2013). Gothic Fiction and the Invention of Terrorism: The Politics and Aesthetics of Fear in the Age of the Reign of Terror. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4725-0912-3.

Crenshaw, Martha (2010). Terrorism in Context. Penn State Press. p. xiii. ISBN 978-0-271-04442-2. Retrieved February 14, 2019.

Corrado, Raymond R.; Evans, Rebecca. "Ethnic and Ideological Terrorism in Western Europe". In Stohl, Michael (ed.). The Politics of Terrorism (Third ed.). p. 373. Retrieved February 14, 2019.

Chris Clark "Malayan Emergency, 16 June 1948". Archived from the original on June 8, 2007., 16 June 2003.

Committee on the Judiciary, Terroristic Activity: International terrorism; Lester A. Sobel, Political Terrorism; Lauran Paine, The Terrorists (1975).

Downes-Le Guin, Theodore & Hoffman, Bruce. (1993). The Impact of Terrorism on Public Opinion, 1988-1989, Santa Monica: Rand, available at: _reports/2006/ MR225.pdf [15.11.2011].

Diaz-Paniagua. (2008). Negotiating terrorism: The negotiation dynamics of four UN counter-terrorism treaties, 1997–2005, p. 47.

Edmund Burke – To The Earl Fitzwilliam (Christmas, 1795.) In: Edmund Burke, Select Works of Edmund Burke, vol. 3 (Letters on a Regicide Peace) (1795).
Peleg, Ilan (1988). "Terrorism in the Middle East: The Case of the Arab-Israeli Conflict". In Stohl, Michael (ed.). The Politics of Terrorism (Third ed.). CRC Press. p. 531. ISBN 978-0-8247-7814-9. Retrieved February 14, 2019.

Eviatar, Daphne. (2013). Is 'Terrorism' a War Crime Triable by Military Commission? Who Knows?. Huffington Post. Retrieved From April 29, 2017.

Fine, Jonathan (2010). "Political and Philological Origins of the Term 'Terrorism' from the Ancient Near East to Our Times". Middle Eastern Studies. 46 (2): 271–288. doi:10.1080/00263201003619927. JSTOR 20720662.

Fortna, Virginia Page. (2015). Do Terrorists Win? Rebels' Use of Terrorism and Civil War Outcomes. International Organization, 69 (3), 519–556. doi:10.1017/S0020818315000089. hdl:1811/52898.

Faimau, Gabriel (July 26, 2013). Socio-Cultural Construction of Recognition: The Discursive Representation of Islam and Muslims in the British Christian News Media. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 27. ISBN 978-1-4438-5104-6.

Halibozek, Edward P.; Jones, Andy; Kovacich, Gerald L. (2008). The corporate security professional's handbook on terrorism (illustrated ed.). Elsevier (Butterworth-Heinemann). pp. 4–5. ISBN 978-0-7506-8257-2. Retrieved December 17, 2016.

Heryanto, Ariel (April 7, 2006). State Terrorism and Political Identity in Indonesia: Fatally Belonging. Routledge. p. 161. ISBN 978-1-134-19569-5.

Houen, Alex (September 12, 2002). "Introduction". Terrorism and Modern Literature: From Joseph Conrad to Ciaran Carson. OUP Oxford. ISBN 978-0-19-154198-8.
Hoffman (1998), p. 32, See review in The New York Times Inside Terrorism.

Jenny Teichman. (1989). How to Define Terrorism". Philosophy. 64 (250): 505–517. doi:10.1017/S0031819100044260. JSTOR 3751606.

Juergensmeyer, Mark (2000). Terror in the Mind of God. University of California Press. pp. 125–135.

Khaled, Leila (September 18, 1970). "This is Your New Captain Speaking". Life. p. 34. Retrieved February 14, 2019.

Khan, Ali (October 8, 2006). "A Theory of International Terrorism". Connecticut Law Review. 19: 945 – via Social Science Research Network.

Lakoff, George. (1993). The Contemporary Theory of Metaphor’, in ortony, Andrew (ed.) Metaphor and Thought (2nd edn), Cambridge: Cambridge university Press, pp. 202-251.

Laqueur, Walter. (1999). The New Terrorism: Fanaticism and the Arms of Mass Destruction, oxford: oxford university Press.

Lazar, Annita and Lazar, Michelle (2004) ‘The Discourse of the New World order: “out Casting” the Double Face of Threat’, Discourse & Society, 15(2–3), 223–242.

Mahon, James E. (1999). Getting your Sources Right. What Aristotle didn’t say, in Cameron, lynne and low Graham (eds.) Researching and Applying Metaphor, Cambridge: Cambridge university Press, pp. 69-80.

McCombs, Maxwell E. & Shaw, Donald L. (1972). The Agenda-Setting Function of Mass Media, The Public Opinion Quarterly, 36 (2), 176-187.

Miller, Joanne M. & Krosnick, Jon A. (2000). News Media impact on the ingredients of Presidential evaluations: Politically Knowledgeable Citizens Are Guided by a Trusted Source’, American Journal of Political Science, 44 (2), 301-315.

Milliken, Jennifer. (1999). The Study of Discourse in international Relations: A Critique of Research and Methods’, European Journal of International Relations, 5 (2), 225-254.

Mio, Jeffrey S. (1997). Metaphor and Politics’, Metaphor and Symbol, 12 (2), 113-133.

Malayan People's Anti-Japanese Army Archived March 24, 2007, at the Wayback Machine Britannica Concise.

Muayad Baqer Mohammed Alfahham , Muayad B M. (2020). International Ambitions in Iraq (Petrol ,Triggered, other).

Muayad Baqer Mohammed Alfahham , Muayad B M. (2020). Review on Religious Extremism in Islamic History (Previously and Contemporary), Forefront Journal of Humanities & Social Science, 2(1), 9- 18 .

Muayad Baqer Mohammed Alfahham , Muayad B M. (2020). The Spread of Terrorism in Contemporary Islamic History with Comparison between Past and Present.

Nacos, Brigitte (2002) Mass-mediated Terrorism: The Central Role of the Media in Terrorism and Counterterrorism, lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.

Nacos, Brigitte. (2006). Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism: Understanding Threats and Responses in the Post-9/11 World, New york: Pearson, longman.

Norris, Pippa, Kern, Montague and Just, Marion (eds.). (2003). Framing Terrorism. The News Media, the Government and the Public, london: Routledge.

"Number of Terrorist Attacks, Fatalities". The Washington Post. June 12, 2009. Retrieved January 11, 2010. The nation's deadliest terrorist acts – attacks designed to achieve a political goal

Papacharissi, Zizi & de Fatima Oliveira, Maria. (2008). News Frames Terrorism: A Comparative Analysis of Frames employed in Terrorism Coverage in u.S. and u.K. Newspapers, The International Journal of Press/Politics, 13 (1), 52-74.

Palmer, R.R. (2014). "The French Directory Between Extremes". The Age of the Democratic Revolution: A Political History of Europe and America, 1760–1800. The Age of the Democratic Revolution. Princeton University Press. pp. 544–567. ISBN 9780691161280. JSTOR j.ctt5hhrg5.29.

Paul Reynolds; quoting David Hannay; Former UK ambassador (September 14, 2005). "UN staggers on road to reform". BBC News. Retrieved January 11, 2010. This would end the argument that one man's terrorist is another man's freedom fighter ...

Peter Steinfels (March 1, 2003). "Beliefs; The just-war tradition, its last-resort criterion and the debate on an invasion of Iraq". The New York Times. Retrieved January 11, 2010. For those like Professor Walzer who value the just-war tradition as a disciplined way to think about the morality of war ...

President Discusses Progress in War on Terrorism to National Guard White House web site 9 February 2006.

Rodin, David (2006). "Terrorism". In E. Craig (Ed.), Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. London: Routledge.

Ronald Reagan, speech to National Conservative Political Action Conference Archived 20 August 2006 at the Wayback Machine 8 March 1985. On the Spartacus Educational web site.

Ruthven, Malise; Nanji, Azim (April 24, 2017). Historical Atlas of Islam. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01385-8.

Radicalisation, De-Radicalisation, Counter-Radicalisation: A Conceptual Discussion and Literature Review. (2016). The International Centre for Counter-Terrorism – The Hague (ICCT). March 27, 2013.

Rediehs, Laura J. (2002). ‘evil’, in J. Collins and R. Glover, Ross (eds.) Collateral Language. A Users Guide to America’s New War. New york: New york university Press, pp. 65–78.

Robert Mackey. (2009). Can Soldiers Be Victims of Terrorism?. The New York Times. Retrieved From January 11, 2010. Terrorism is the deliberate killing of innocent people, at random, in order to spread fear through a whole population and force the hand of its political leaders.

Sinclair, Samuel Justin; Antonius, Daniel. (2012). The Psychology of Terrorism Fears. Oxford University Press, US. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-19-538811-4.

Schmid, Alex. (1989). Terrorism and the Media: The ethics of Publicity, Terrorism and Political Violence, 1 (4), 539-565.

Shimko, Keith L. (1994). Metaphors and Foreign Policy Decision Making, Political Psychology, 15 (4), 655-671.

Shimko, Keith L. (1995). Foreign Policy Metaphors: Falling “Dominoes” and Drug “Wars”’, in lauraNeack, Jeanne Hey & Patrick Haney (eds.) Foreign Policy Analysis. Continuity and Change in its Second Generation, englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, pp. 71-84.

Simon, Jeffrey. (1987). Misperceiving the Terrorist Threat, RAND Publication Series, R-3423-RC (June), available at:
Sontag, Susan. (1989). Illness as a Metaphor and AIDS and its Metaphors, New york: Doubleday.

Shabad, Goldie; LleraRamo, Francisco Jose (2010). "Political Violence in a Democratic State: Basque Terrorism in Spain". In Crenshaw, Martha (ed.). Terrorism in Context. Retrieved February 14, 2019.

Spencer, Alexander. (2006a). Questioning the Concept of “New Terrorism”, Peace Conflict and Development, 8,1-88.

Spencer, Alexander. (2010). The Tabloid Terrorist. The Predicative Construction of New Terrorism in the Media, basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Sunstein, Cass R. (2003). Terrorism and the Probability Neglect, Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 26 (2-3), 121-136.

Stevenson, ed. by Angus. (2010). Oxford dictionary of English (3rd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-957112-3.

Theodore R. (2003). The Metaphor-to Myth Transformation with Special Reference to the “War on Terrorism”, Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, 9 (2), 149-157.

Tsfati, Yariv & Weimann, Gabriel (2002) ‘ Terror on the internet’, Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 25 (5), 317-332.

Terrorism. (2015) . Encyclopædia Britannica. p. 3. Retrieved From January 7, 2015.

The Illusion of War: Is Terrorism a Criminal Act or an Act of War? . Mackenzie Institute. July 31, 2014. Retrieved from April 29, 2017.

Thackrah, John Richard (2013). Dictionary of Terrorism. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-16595-6.

Weimann, Gabriel & Winn, Conrad. (1994). The Theater of Terror. Mass Media and International Terrorism, New york: longman.

Wilkinson, Paul. (2000). Terrorism versus Democracy: The Liberal State Response. london: Frank Cass.

Woods, Joshua. (2007). What We Talk about When We Talk about Terrorism: elite Press Coverage of Terrorism Risk from 1997-2005, The International Journal of Press/Politics, 12 (3), 3-20.

Wisnewski, J. Jeremy, ed. (2008). Torture, Terrorism, and the Use of Violence (also available as Review Journal of Political Philosophy, 6(1). Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 175. ISBN 978-1-4438-0291-8.

White, Jonathan R. (2016). Terrorism and Homeland Security. Cengage Learning. p. 3. ISBN 978-1-305-63377-3.

1994 United Nations Declaration on Measures to Eliminate International Terrorism annex to UN General Assembly resolution 49/60, "Measures to Eliminate International Terrorism", of December 9, 1994, UN Doc. A/Res/60/49.

"22 U.S. Code § 2656f – Annual country reports on terrorism". LII / Legal Information Institute.

Wibisono S, Louis WR & Jetten J. (2019). A Multidimensional Analysis of Religious Extremism. Front. Psychol. 10:2560. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02560 .

Yusof, N., Kaur, A., Sani, M. A., & Hashim, R. A. (2019). A Qualitative Expert Interview Approach towards Understanding Religious Extremism among Malaysian Youth. The Qualitative Report, 24(7), 1577-1592. Retrieved from https://nsuworks.nova .edu/tqr/vol24/ iss7/5

Yusoufzai, K., & Emmerling, F. (2017). Explaining violent radicalization in Western Muslims: A four factor model. Journal of Terrorism Research, 8(1), 68-80.

Zhang, H., Zhao, J. S., Ren, L., & Zhao, R. (2017). Subculture, gang involvement, and delinquency: A study of incarcerated youth in China. Justice Quarterly, 34(6), 952- 977. doi: 10.1080/07418825.2016.1243254
How to Cite
Alfahham, M. B. M. (2020). Review on Sects and Religions in History of Iraq. International Journal of Islamic Business & Management, 4(1), 1-9.
Original Articles/Review Articles/Case Reports/Short Communications