The Socio-Cultural History, the Economic and Political Development of the Minority Society: The Case of Benishangul Gumuz (1991-2018)

  • Wondim Tiruneh Zeleke Instructor, Department of Social Science, Injibara College of Teachers’ Education, Ethiopia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3520-0796
Keywords: Gunza,Ganza, Mussa Ceremony, Kanca Plots, Mangima Traditions.

Abstract

The study focuses on the Socio-Cultural History and the Econo- Political Development of the Minority Society: The Case of Benishangul Gumuz(1991-2018).The Gumuz of Matakal are renowned for their traditional socio-cultural history, economic and political developments since their arrival to Matakal. They have developed wonderful conflict management strategies and institutions that play important role in harmonizing their relations with the neighboring “ethnic” group, such as the Shinasha, Amhara, Agaw and Oromo. The conflicts differ in their causes, nature, intensity, frequency; yet the peculiarities are often glossed over and depicted as typical inter-ethnic conflicts between the highlanders or “settlers” on one side and the “indigenous “people on the other. Nonetheless, this approach not only risks a presupposition of ethnic groups as cohesive and binding entities but fails to explore the role of Gumuz initiation rituals, rite of passage, discourses of violence and other major socio-cultural events in inspiring and articulating them. So far, there exists no single comprehensive study, in its own right, that tries to map out the nexus between Gumuz perceptions, symbolism, representation and discourses of violence and outbreak of intermittent conflict in the region in time and space (1991-2018). The related literature will be systematically reviewed and relevant information gathered. Furthermore, in-depth interviews will be conducted, with elders from the highlanders, particularly from Amhara, Agaw, Shinasha, Oromo ethnic groups and the Gumuz. The data collected through these methods will be carefully examined, cross-checked, interpreted and analyzed to determine whether there will be any correlation or connection between the Gumuz, discourses of violence and outbreak of conflicts in the study area.

References

Periodicals, Documentary Electronic Sources and Reports

UNFPA. Bush Birthing Cuts Corners: The Case of Beniŝangul Gumuz.Asossa,2014.

Fekadu Wamber, “Yé Gumuz béhéréséb aḉir yé bahil zägäbä” (A brief cultural report of the Gumuz people, 1998 Mätäkäl Zonal Agricultural Department Office Report. Asossa,2014

Beniŝangul Gumuz Region Food Security Strategy Report, Beureau of Finance and Economic Development, Asossa, 2004.

Unpublished Sources

Thesis, Dessertations and Other Papers

Jira Mekuria. “AHistory of the Gumuz People of Metekel (1941-1991).”M.A.Thesis in History, Addis Ababa: Addis Ababa University, 2008.

Dessalegn Rahamato. “Resettlement and Indigenous Population of Metekel.”Paper Presented for the Institute of Development Research on Famine Experience and Resettlement in Ethiopia, Addis Ababa: Addis Ababa University,1988.

Bogale Aligaz. “Conflict Resolution among the Gumuz Communities: Mangima Institution in the Twentieth Century.” M.A.Thesis in History.Bahir Dar : Bahir Dar University,2013.

Berihun Mebratie. “Spontaneous Settlement and Interethnic Relations in Metekel, North Western Ethiopia.”M.A.Thesis in Sociology and Social Anthropology, Addis Ababa: Addis Ababa University, 1999.

__________.”The Past in the Present: The Dynamics of Identity and Otherness among the Gumuz of Ethiopia.”Doctoral Thesis in Social Anthropology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim,2004.

Alemayehu Erkihun. “State and Ethnic Interaction in Agäw Meder and Mätäkäl: The Case of Awi and Gumuz in the Twentieth Century.” M.A.Thesis in History, Bahir Dar: Bahir Dar University, 2012.

Aysheshim Madfu. “Crime and Custom: With Reference to the Śanquilla Nationality.”Senior Essay in Law. Addis Ababa: Addis Ababa University, 1987.

Dessalegn Rahamato. “Resettlement and Indigenous Population of Metekel.”Paper Presented for the Institute of Development Research on Famine Experience and Resettlement in Ethiopia, Addis Ababa: Addis Ababa University,1988.

Tsegaye Morada. “Listening to their Silence? The Reaction of the Gumuz People against Large-Scale Land Acquisitions in Beniŝangul Gumuz Region.”Ethiopia: Asossa, 2013.

Wubat Engidayehu. “AHistory of Gojjam-Awi and Their Relations to Neighboring Gumuz People (1855-1991).” M.A.Thesis in History, Mekelle: Mekelle University, 2012.

Published Sources

Article

Berihun Mebratie. “The Gumuz: Are they Shifting Cultivators? Proceedings of the Sixteen International Conferences of the Ethiopian Studies, Vol.2. Norway: Trondheim, 2009.

Tsega Endalew. “Conflict Resolution through Cultural Tolerance: Analysis of the Miḉu Institution in Mätäkäl Region, Ethiopia.” Social Science Report Series No.25, Addis Ababa: OSSREA,2002.

Wolde-Sellassie Abbute. “Nature, Culture and Encroachment: Indigenous Resource Management of Gumuz under Stress in Metekel, North Western Ethiopia.” Proceedings of the XIVth International Conference of the Ethiopian Studies, Institute of Ethiopian Studies: Addis Ababa University, 2002.

Books

Bender, Lionel. The Ethiopian Nilo-Saharans. Addis Ababa: Addis Ababa University Press, 1975.

Central Statistics Agency.Population and Census .Addis Ababa: Statistics Agency, 2007.

Dessalegn Amsalu. The Nature of Awi-Gumuz Relations: The Dynamics of Ethncity in Ethiopia. USA: VDM Verlag , 2010.

Tsega Endalew. Inter-Ethnic Relations on Frontier: Metekel (Ethiopia), 1898-1991. Germany: Wiesbaden, 2006.

Wolde Sellassie Abbute. Gumuz and Highland Resettlers: Differing Strategies of Livelihood and Ethnic Relations in Metekel, North Western Ethiopia (USA: Die Deutche Biblio thek, 1984

__________. Indigenous Livelihood Strategies and Resource Management Systems in Beniŝangul Gumuz. Addis Ababa: Oxfam Canada,2004.

Published
2020-03-16
How to Cite
Zeleke, W. T. (2020). The Socio-Cultural History, the Economic and Political Development of the Minority Society: The Case of Benishangul Gumuz (1991-2018). American International Journal of Social Science Research, 5(2), 8-18. https://doi.org/10.46281/aijssr.v5i2.514
Section
Research Articles