• Salman Ali Nabavi Kandahar University, Afghanistan
  • Alinaqi Mohammadi Kandahar University, Afghanistan
  • Jailani Achak Kandahar University, Afghanistan
  • Ezatullah Sail Nangarhar University, Afghanistan
Keywords: Child Labor, Education, Kandahar City, Afghanistan.


This study describes the child laborers’ access to education in Kandahar city. We present the methodology followed in the study, study area and type of data collected to estimate to dimensions of child laborers access to education in the city. Data collected contains information about sociodemographic characteristics, Child laborer access to education, negative impacts of working on children’s education and Head of household education. It is hoped that this study would intensify a debate on main barriers to education that could tie in with analysis and commentary on providing education and related facilities to marginalized groups like child laborers and girls in society. Readers are encouraged to consider how to understand the landscape that child laborers are confronting, while also asking critical questions about the socio-political circumstances and inefficiency of educational system in which we all participate as we fight to eliminate marginalization and illiteracy in the society. Finally, it is recommended that there is a need to re-vision of the schooling system in order to evolve ways and means of offering education that is inclusive and relevant for working children in Kandahar city and other similar context.


Author Biographies

Salman Ali Nabavi, Kandahar University, Afghanistan

Lecturer & Chairman, Geography Dep. Faculty of Education, Kandahar University, Kandahar, Afghanistan

Alinaqi Mohammadi, Kandahar University, Afghanistan

Lecturer, Pedagogy & Psychology Dep. Faculty of Education, Kandahar University, Kandahar, Afghanistan

Jailani Achak, Kandahar University, Afghanistan

Lecturer & Chairman, Chemistry Dep. Faculty of Education, Kandahar University, Kandahar, Afghanistan

Ezatullah Sail, Nangarhar University, Afghanistan

Professor & Chairman, Geography Dep. Faculty of Education, Nangarhar University, Nangarhar, Afghanistan


Adkins, M. J. (2016). Challenges for Progressive Education in Afghanistan: A History of Oppression and the Rising Threat of ISIS. International Journal of Progressive Education, 12(2).

Ahmadi, H. (2021). One thousand schools have been destroyed in the last 20 years. Retrieved from

Afghan Independent Human Rights Commission (AIHRC). (2006). An Overview on Situation of Child Laborers in Afghanistan, Afghanistan Independent, a research report. 3-12. Retrieved from

Akarro, R. R., & Mtweve, N. A. (2011). Poverty and its association with child labor in Njombe District in Tanzania: the case of Igima ward. Current Research Journal of Social Sciences, 3(3), 199-206.

Brown, G. (2012). Child Labor & Educational Disadvantage–Breaking the Link, Building Opportunity A Review by.

Edmonds, E. V. (2008). Defining child labour: A review of the definitions of child labour in policy research. ILO.

Emerson, P. M., Ponczek, V., & Souza, A. P. (2017). Child labor and learning. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 65(2), 265-296.

Edmonds, E. V. (2015). Economic Growth and Child Labor in Low Income Economies. A Systhesis Paper Prepared for IZA/DFID. Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor.‏

Education for All. (2007). Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2008: Education for All by 2015. Will We Make It?. Oxford University Press.

Heady, C. (2000). What Is the Effect of Child Labour on Learning Achievement? Evidence from Ghana. Innocenti Working Papers.‏

International Labour Organization (ILO). (2018a). Training manual on child labour in Afghanistan. ILO, 2018. Retrieved from

International Labour Organization (ILO). (2018b). Towards the urgent elimination of HAZARDOUS CHILD LABOUR. Retrieved from

International Labour Organization (ILO). (2009). Understanding the concept of child labour / International Labour Office, 2009. Retrieved from

Ilahi, N. (2000). The intra-household allocation of time and tasks: What have we learnt from the empirical literature?. Washington, DC: World Bank, Development Research Group/Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Network.

International Labour Organization (ILO). (2017). Global estimates of child labour: Results and trends, 2012–2016.‏

Khan, A. A. (2007). Stakeholders' perceptions and action for addressing students' dropout in a government secondary school in Karachi.‏

Keeley, B., & Little, C. (2017). The State of the Worlds Children 2017: Children in a Digital World. UNICEF. 3 United Nations Plaza, New York, NY 10017.

Kondylis, F., & Manacorda, M. (2006). School proximity and child labor evidence from rural Tanzania. Retrieved from

Lutf, L., & Yasini, S. I. H. (2018). Factors Contributing to Child Labor in Afghanistan: A Case Study in Jalalabad City. Economic Alternatives, (3), 348-372.

Mansory, A. (2007). Drop out study in basic education level of schools in Afghanistan. Kabul: Swedish committee for Afghanistan.‏

MacDonald, D. (2008). Afghanistan research and evaluation unit briefing paper series: Afghanistan’s hidden drug problem: the misuse of psychotropics. Kabul: Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit.

Mosadiq, H., & Kaandorp, M. (2018). Child Notice Afghanistan. Produced by UNICEF The Netherlands, in cooperation with UNICEF Afghanistan.

National Statistics and Information Authority (NSIA). (2021). Retrieved from

Osment, L. (2014). Child labour; the effect on child, causes and remedies to the revolving menace.‏

Pappu, R., & Vasanta, D. (2020). Child labor and education in South Asia. Handbook of education systems in South Asia, 1-26.

Saeedi, K. H. (2019). Municipal solid waste management analysis in Kandahar city. Octa Journal of Environmental Research, 7(1), 010-018.‏

Trani, J. F., Bakhshi, P., & Nandipati, A. (2012). Delivering’education; maintaining inequality. The case of children with disabilities in Afghanistan. Cambridge Journal of Education, 42(3), 345-365.

UNICEF. (2019). Nine Afghan children killed or maimed daily in world’s most lethal warzone – UNICEF. Press release 16 December 2019. Retrieved from

UNICEF. (2018a). Geneva Palais briefing note on the situation of children in Afghanistan. UNICEF. Press release, 27 November 2018. Retrieved from

UNICEF. (2018b). GLOBAL INITIATIVE ON OUT-OF-SCHOOL CHILDREN; AFGHANISTAN COUNTRY STUDY. Ministry of Education, Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, and United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) 2018. Retrieved from

UNICEF. (2021). Child protection; Protecting Afghanistan’s most vulnerable children. Programme. Retrieved from

UNICEF. (2020). Education; Providing quality education for all. Programme. Retrieved from

UNICEF. (2014). Child labour and UNICEF in action: children at the centre. New York: UNICEF.‏
UCW. (2012). Understanding children’s work and youth employment outcomes in Indonesia. Rome, Understanding Children’s Work (UCW) Programme

World Bank. (2018). Afghanistan: Promoting Education during Times of Increased Fragility. World Bank.‏

Wahba, J. (2006). The influence of market wages and parental history on child labour and schooling in Egypt. Journal of Population Economics, 19(4), 823-852.
How to Cite
Nabavi, S. A., Mohammadi, A., Achak, J., & Sail, E. (2021). CHILD LABORERS ACCESS TO EDUCATION IN KANDAHAR CITY. American International Journal of Social Science Research, 6(2), 39-48.
Original Articles/Review Articles/Case Reports/Short Communications