International Journal of Shari'ah and Corporate Governance Research Centre for Research on Islamic Banking & Finance and Business en-US International Journal of Shari'ah and Corporate Governance Research 2578-0387 Slavery in Islam: An Islamic Sufi Approach <p>In this paper, the history of slavery in the pre-Islamic era is considered first, and then the definitions used in that period are compared with the Islamic definition of slavery. Generally, in concept and reality, the definition of slavery from the Islamic viewpoint has essential differences with slavery in the ancient world, and the treatment with slaves was also totally different. Unlike the abolition of slavery in most countries which accompanied with war, roughness and social damages, the decided policies of Islam were based on the gradual deletion of slavery from the society to achieve the least social turbulence. Actually, because the input to the slavery system in Islam was narrow, and the output of the slavery system was wide; the phenomenon of slavery was gradually deleted in Islamic nations.</p> <p><strong><a href=""></a></strong></p> Bijan Bidabad Mehdi Tabatabaei ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-06-08 2019-06-08 2 2 1 12 Interest-Free Treasury Bonds (IFTB) <p><em>Purpose:</em> Although the treasury bill is the most important monetary instrument in central banking, its application in different phases of the business cycle, especially in a liquidity trap, is not working well. To remove this obstacle “Interest-Free Treasury Bond” (IFTB) is introduced as a substitute for conventional treasury bills.</p> <p><em>Design:</em> IFTB is a valuable paper which is issued by government treasury through a barter contract and is sold to central or commercial banks. The issuer is a debtor to the holder and has to pay back the nominal value at maturity; in addition, the issuer is committed to lending a similar amount of money to the paper holder for an equal period. Zero interest rate is nominated for lending and borrowing.</p> <p><em>Finding:</em> IFTB is a zero-coupon, asset-backed note with no interest and is designed upon “debt equal to future loan”, or “loan equal to future debt” with “time-withdrawal right”. The paper holder can supply and transact her bond in the secondary market at a competitive price.</p> <p><em>Practical implication:</em> It can be used as a substitute for conventional treasury bills. All conventional and non-usury systems can implement IFTB.</p> <p><strong>JEL:</strong> E43, E44, E52, E58, E62, E63</p> Bijan Bidabad ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-06-08 2019-06-08 2 2 13 21 Public Administration: An Islamic Sufi Approach <p>Along with comparing public administration affairs in traditional political, genuinely religious, patrimonial, and charismatic systems, we deal with decision-making problem, and along with mentioning decision-making methods in modern mathematics, the decision making process on the basis of personal value system will be under considerations. If the human beings’ value system moves from caring material affairs towards concerning spiritualties, the consequences of decision-making process would be improved. In establishing management and making hierarchical organization, the more the rate of discipline and ration, the organization framework would become more consolidated. The basic skeleton of an organization includes division of labor, authority, and responsibility, hierarchical relationships of different job categories in the organization, and the qualifications of relationships are of the other items that are being considered in this paper. Mutual understandings and beliefs of members of the organization in approaching organizational goals and their moral commitments to preserve organization's benefits would reduce the costs of supervision and control in organizations including visible and invisible costs, and methods for providing these conditions in Sufism are achieved via purification of the self for every single of the individuals. Meritocracy and favoritism are other discussed topics in this paper. In conclusion, fifty rules for public administration affairs are presented which have been raised by His Excellency Haj Zein ul-Abedin Shirvani, a Sufi Master of two centuries ago.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Bijan Bidabad ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-06-15 2019-06-15 2 2 22 40 Social Changes: An Islamic Sufi Approach <p>Change of the society begins with change and transformation of humankind. Human beings change is due to their educations in all respects of social customs, etiquette, organizational skills, and customs of ethical and occupational. Different ideas about the way to change people's opinion return back to human beings' notions. However, some believe that imbalance of forces in various classes of the society is the reason for revolutions and changes in. If a notion is rejected, then its tradition will collapse, and tradition-breaking starts. Because notion connects values to nature of objects and value them, and this credited value is known as a reality for human beings. Transformation starts when those notions that convert customs and habits to tradition, and then to institution start to change. Combination of old and new notions appears a synthesis of notion, and in the next step, the synthesis works as a thesis and reappearance of antithesis ends to revolutions and evolution of the societies. General rules of being are not specific to a particular science. Further, social pressures, evolutions, and revolutions comply with the laws of mechanics. Mechanical laws are highly adaptable to bring the forces and pressures into individual and social changes analysis. As empirical scientist discovered and described the mathematical rules of physical laws to analyze and study the physical and chemical phenomena; it is time to place that psychologists, as well as social scientists, discover the mathematical expressive rules within individual and interpersonal behavioral realms. Islam proposes the most important theory of social changes and evolution toward ethical promotion, and principally, though considers class differences and conflicts regarding the issues of interest, wealth and materialism, but enlightens people that all these affairs are just credited and should not be emphasized more than necessary. Birth of a human being is birth of a thinking force that regarding the average intelligence and norms condition of human society, can solve his problems, and among the born based on the probability distribution functions, some are with very high IQs who can initiate large changes in larger societies. Instead of inhibiting population growth, raise a population reform agenda. Therefore, considers special rules dealing with male-female relationships and marriage.</p> <p><strong><a href=""></a></strong></p> Bijan Bidabad ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-06-15 2019-06-15 2 2 41 53 Money Politics: The Problem of Good Governance in Ese-Odo Local Government Area, Ondo State, Nigeria <p>This study examined critically how money and gifts have been used to influence the electorates during elections in Ese-Odo Local Government Area of Ondo State. Politicians in Nigerian society, especially in Ese-Odo LGA seem to have their ways in forcing themselves into seat of power by manipulating the thought of the electorates thereby engaging them into vote-buying and vote-selling. The population for study consisted of 213600 citizens. The sample consisted of four hundred (400) respondents. Three research questions were raised for the purpose of the study. The data that were retrieved from the respondents were three hundred and ninety-eight. Descriptive statistics was used to analyse the data and one hypothesis was also tested. The study found out that using money and other gifts by the politicians to influence the electorates is one of the major reasons for bad governance in Ese-Odo LGA. The study concluded that money politics has brought a great setback to democracy and has hampered the development of the masses and that of the society at large. The study, there for, recommended that for there to be free and fair elections in the society, the electorates must be enlightened on the civic rights of the electorates so as not to get involved in money politics. This will enable the electorates to vote for any political aspirant of their choice. Electoral laws should be strictly adhered to, and any electoral officer who is involved in using the period of elections as a means of extorting money from the political contestants should be dealt with. However, any political member who is caught in the act of vote-buying should be severely punished according to electoral laws. By doing this, the masses will be able to secure their well-being and that of the generations yet to come for sustainable development.</p> David Tolo Oluwakemi Ibidapo Abolarin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-10 2019-08-10 2 2 54 61