International Journal of Accounting & Finance Review 2020-02-29T00:17:36+06:00 Executive Editor Open Journal Systems <p><img style="display: block; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;" src="" alt=""></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><em><strong>International Journal of Accounting &amp; Finance Review (IJAFR)</strong></em>&nbsp; is an international, double-blind peer-reviewed journal for accounting &amp; finance academics.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>IJAFR</strong> is indexed in&nbsp;<strong><u><a href="">ABDC(Australian Business Deans Council) </a><a href="">Journal Quality List,2019</a></u></strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Impacting the B2B-Business Development Process: Social Media Usage within a Global Software Environment 2020-01-06T01:04:27+06:00 Werner Krings <p>The thesis aims to explore and explain how Social Media impacts the B2B-Business Development process in a global software environment. Mixed-methods uncover the leading media platforms applied in the Business Development process cycle. The thesis produced a model, illustrating two dimensions of Social Media Business Usage, four critical Business Development process phases, and their impact on Performance mediated by Social Capital. To extend generalizability, future research may focus on testing the model for New Business Development exclusively. Significant contributions are classifying relevant Social Media platforms, distilling the process phases with the greatest impact on performance. The creation of new indices advances the performance discussion, and the typology of Business Developers capitalises on optimising the process sequence.</p> 2020-01-06T01:04:13+06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Testing Multi-Factor Models in ADRs: Emerging Market vs. Developed Market 2020-02-21T10:48:02+06:00 Tingting Que Wai Yin Mok Kit Yee Cheung <p style="text-align: justify;">This paper tests whether the Carhart four-factor model and the Fama-French five-factor model can explain variation in returns of 1,230 ADRs originating from six developed markets and five emerging markets. We aim to compare emerging market ADRs with developed market ADRs in terms of traditional risk factors significance, model fitness and the existence of abnormal returns. Overall, we find that substantial variations exist among ADRs by their origin-of-market. First, both models show that most of the positive abnormal returns we document accrue to emerging market ADRs, mainly Chinese ADRs. Among the risk factors, market risk premium is found to be most prevalent in both emerging and developed markets. Although we find some difference in the presence of particular risk factors employed in the four-factor vs. five-factor model, overall, there are no significant differences in the explanation power between the two models. Lastly, the low <em>R</em><sup>2 </sup>values imply that both models do not work very well with the international market ADRs.&nbsp;</p> 2020-02-21T10:48:02+06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Literature Review on the Association between Earnings Management and Corporate Social Responsibility 2020-02-25T22:55:16+06:00 Ruksana Parvin Md. Sohel Rana Shahpar Shams <p>This paper aims to give an overview of the existing literature on the Earnings Management (EM) and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) relationship in different countries. This paper reviews preceding studies concerned about EM, CSR and their relationship. Out of 23 works of literature, 11 studies found a negative relationship, 6 studies found a positive relationship, 2 studies found blended relationships in case of different situations and 4 studies found no connection between CSR and EM. Most of the results demonstrated that probably the socially responsible organizations have a negative correlation with EM practice. The types of the relationship depend on cause-effect relationship, information asymmetry, how can a company use resources, awareness on environmental issues, awareness on ethical issues, tax avoidance tendency, corporate governance practice, nature of the firm, political environment, opportunistic incentive, and stakeholder capital, manager's psychology, etc. Relationships between EM and CSR influence on earnings quality, firm performance, and firm value.&nbsp;</p> 2020-02-25T22:55:16+06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Oil Sector Spillover Effects to the Kuwait Stock Market under Uncertainty 2020-02-29T00:17:36+06:00 Yousef M. Abdulrazzaq Shekar Shetty <p>The purpose of this paper is to identify the connection between oil prices and the performance of oil and gas, industry and services sectors. The paper is supported by the granger causality and Engle and Granger cointegration tests. The research findings do not support a long-run association between Brent oil prices excluding the case of the Oil and Gas sector index; however, short-run dynamics were recognized. There is no unidirectional causality found in any case. The outcomes of the GARCH model show stable results for all three sectors.</p> 2020-02-28T23:45:58+06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##