American International Journal of Social Science Research <p><img class="shrinkToFit" style="display: block; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;" src="" alt="" width="465" height="654"></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><em><strong>American International Journal of Social Science Research (AIJSSR)</strong> </em>is an international, double-blind peer-reviewed journal for social science academics.The AIJSSR aims to provide platform for high quality research related to Social Science Research.</p> Centre for Research on Islamic Banking & Finance and Business en-US American International Journal of Social Science Research 2576-103X Anti-Corruption Policy Strategies for Nigeria towards National Development: Evidence from Least Corrupt Countries <p>Anti-corruption policy strategies in Finland and Singapore were examined, and lessons were drawn for Nigeria. Finland and Singapore were chosen because they are among the least fifth corrupt countries in the world from 2010 to 2017, and they have different norms. Another reason is that the norm in Finland is fairly similar to the norms of Sweden, Denmark, Norway, New Zealand, and Australia which are also among the least corrupt countries in the world, while the norm of Singapore is fairly similar to Hong Kong and Japan which are also among the least corrupt countries in the world. It was revealed that the case of Nigerian society is similar to that of Singaporean society. In Finland, it was observed that anti-corruption measures and institutions are weak as it does not have a separate unit dedicated to investigate or prosecute corruption-related offences, but there is a guiding principle such that anti-corruption measures are integrated into general good governance policy grounded on the rule of law. Also in Singapore, anti-corruption was achieved through anti-corruption policy that has been in existence since the year 1959, although there was a situation of deplorable condition and widespread corrupt practices, but the new government in the late 1950s set up a strategy which resulted that top political leaders set themselves as role models for civil servants and showing zero tolerance for corrupt behaviour. Finally, recommendations were suggested.</p> <p><a href=""><strong></strong></a></p> Adeniran Adetayo Olaniyi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-06-22 2019-06-22 4 2 1 8 Factor Analysis of Passengers’ Satisfaction in Nigerian Airports <p>This study determined complex factors influencing passengers’ satisfaction in Nigerian Airports. Theoretical evidence was examined and factor analysis was carried out to identify the main groups of factors affecting passengers’ satisfaction at the Airport. Primary data was gathered from domestic air passengers with random and systemic sampling techniques. 71.1 percent of questionnaires were retrieved from respondents in Lagos, and 61.9 percent of questionnaires were retrieved from respondents in Abuja. The findings of the study show that the most important five factors affecting it are: courtesy of staff, availability of staff, effective way finding signs, availability of telecommunications, and cleanliness of restrooms. The results obtained from this study will help airport managers in the Nigeria to better serve their passengers through improved attitudes of airport staff and improved technologies.</p> <p><strong><a href=""></a></strong></p> Sidiq Okwudili Ben ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-06-22 2019-06-22 4 2 9 13 Public Debt Spiral in Nigeria: Can a Structural Gap Result From Pervasive Corruption? <p>It is increasingly recognized that good understanding on the corruption-related causes and remedies of the modern fiscal crisis would bolster informed decisions and key governance standards. Many of the governance weaknesses have been exacerbated by ingrained fiscal indiscipline and lack of effective bureaucratic provisions.&nbsp; These concerns necessitate ongoing research efforts aimed at galvanizing the best compilation of perspectives on the role of public institutions in debt accumulation process. Hence, this study examines the long run and short run effect of corruption on public debt in Nigeria over the period of 1996 to 2017 using ARDL bound test to cointegration analysis. Empirical evidence reveals that both corruption index and control of corruption have an insignificant adverse effect on public debt in the long run, but with a significant influence in the short run. Considering the long-term implication, current anti-corruption efforts might be ineffective in enhancing strategic monitoring and sustainable fiscal standards. Nonetheless, it is emphasized that effective corruption control measures could mitigate spiralling incidence of government debt. Further findings indicate that there exists bi-directional causality between corruption index and public debt, whereas none is found between control of corruption and public debt. The study suggests that strong corruption-based control mechanisms are fundamentals to decreasing fiscal deficits and debt reduction. Overall, a significant insight distills from the study is that the goal of attaining global financial stability and fiscal sustainability through sound regulatory framework has embodied the provisions that enhance corruption-reducing measures and institutional standards to curb persistent debt accumulation.</p> <p><a href=""><strong></strong></a></p> Fisayo Fagbemi Olufemi Solomon Olatunde ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-06-22 2019-06-22 4 2 14 23 Assessment of College Students’ Preference on the Usage of Google Drive as a Learning Platform: An Empirical Evidence <p>This research assessed College Students preference on the Usage of Google Drive as a learning platform in north-east Nigeria. The study had three objectives, three research questions and three null hypotheses. Descriptive survey research design was used for the study. The population of the study was 263 three hundred level business education students in north-eastern Nigeria. Four rating scale structured questionnaire titled “College students’ preference of Google Drive (CGD”) was used for data collection. The instrument was validated by experts from the Faculty of Technology Education, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi. The researcher personally administered the instrument assisted by 3 research assistants. Data collected was analyzed using Mean and standard deviation statistical tools to answer the research questions. The result of the study reveals that students used Google Drive for assignments, study and downloading of materials. Based on the outcome of the study, it was concluded that Google Drive platform provide undergraduate business education students with opportunities to enhance and assess current educational information. It was recommended that lecturers and all stakeholders who handle business education courses should be encourage to adopt the use of Google Drive as a learning platform, The business education students should utilize and exploit maximally the opportunities provided by the use of Google Drive as a learning platform for learning activities with the help of their lecturers etc. in addition useful suggestions for further research are equally made.</p> <p><strong><a href=""></a></strong></p> Mahmud Tukur Abubakar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-06-22 2019-06-22 4 2 24 34 Review of Freud’s Psychoanalysis Approach to Literary Studies <p>The purpose of this review article is to identify theories of Psychoanalysis by Sigmund Freud that play major roles in interpreting literary works. Psychoanalysis is among one of the modern theories used in literary analysis. Whether psychoanalysis has close connection with literature or not has been most controversial issues for many readers and least appreciated. In spite of being one of famous approach for interpreting literary text, it has become one of the mechanisms for interpreting hidden meaning of the text. The finding of this paper revealed Psychoanalysis is not simply branch of medicine, it has helped and is used to understand various fields as philosophy, culture, religion and first and for most used in literature. It also revealed that there is similarities and controversial issues between Carl Jung and Sigmund Freud’s theories of psychoanalytical criticism. Id, which is part of human personality playing a major role in forming literary work for its repressed behaviors, laid in unconscious mind. The human actions which are suppressed feelings because of superego and can be expressed with the help of Ego which balance the conflict between id and superego in the right time in form of dreams, art, literary work and slip of tongue. &nbsp;Psychoanalysis approach is used to analyze piece of art by investigating closely the author and his/her life and literary work for providing evidence in analyzing, one or more of the character’s behavior and inspiration, the audience’ appealing and motivation to which react more closely or less unconsciously and the text for examining the role of language and symbolism in the work.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Azadkhan Niaz Sultn Mohammad Stanikzai Javed Sahibzada ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-07-03 2019-07-03 4 2 35 44 Perceptions of Inmates on Social Work Intervention in Osun State Prisons, Nigeria <p>The study investigated the inmates on social work intervention in Osun State prisons, Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study identified the age range of the inmates, inmates’ perception towards a societal valued life, level of engagement in skill acquisition and formal education, attitude of government and prison service employees towards inmates’ reformation. The study adopted descriptive research design. The sample consisted of 88 inmates randomly selected from the 880 inmates and eight (8) warders from Ilesa prison yard. The research instrument was a close ended questionnaire and focus group discussion. Data obtained were analysed using percentages and frequency counts. Results showed that inmates’ ages range mostly between 21 and 25 years. Findings also showed inmates perceived they could still live a good and societal acceptable life; the societal services rendered to them were good to an extent that they had positive attitudes towards skill acquisition and formal education; inmates were satisfied with the services rendered by prison workers and welfare provisions from the government. Findings concluded that the inmates believed they could still live an acceptable life during and as an ex-convict. The study recommended that individual inmate could be tailored and encouraged on the need to better their lives in the prison yard and become acceptable and self-reliant ex-convict.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Eyitayo Olufunmilayo Akinyemi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-07-03 2019-07-03 4 2 45 52 Comparative Effectiveness of Self-Instructional Print Media and Conventional Teaching Method on Secondary School Students Achievement in Physics in Osun State <p>The current decline in the performance of secondary school students in Physics in the Senior School Certificate Examination (SSCE) has become a major concern for the stakeholders in the field of education. This may perhaps, be partly due to the strict adherence of Physics teachers to the use of conventional teaching method in teaching Physics. This study was therefore carried out with the aim of evaluating the comparative effectiveness of Self-instructional Print Media and the conventional teaching method on secondary school students’ achievement in Physics in Osun State. A non-randomised control group pretest-posttest quasi-experimental research design was adopted for the study. Self-Instructional Printed Material in Physics (SIPMP), Lesson Plan in Physics (LPP), Entry Behaviour Test in Physics (EBTP) and Achievement Test in Physics (ATP) were the research instruments used in this study. One hundred and seventy three (173) SSS II students from six intact classes of six purposively selected secondary schools in Osun State constituted the sample of the study. These students were randomly assigned into the three quasi-experimental groups, namely: Self-instructional Print Media alone (SIPM alone), Self-instructional Print Media with the conventional Teaching Method (SIPM with CTM) and the Conventional Teaching Method alone (CTM alone). The three groups were tested prior to and after their exposure to the experimental treatment. The data collected were analysed to answer the five research questions and test the four hypotheses raised for the study using mean scores, t-test, ANOVA and ANCOVA at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of this study indicated that the three groups were equivalent or homogeneous prior to the application of the experimental treatment. The three groups also recorded significant improvement in their achievement in physics after being exposed to the experimental treatments. However, the students that were exposed to the self-instructional print media (whether independently or conjointly with the conventional teaching method) significantly outshone their counterparts that were taken through the conventional teaching method alone. Based on these findings, secondary school physics teachers were admonished to embrace the use of self-instructional print media to promote effective and efficient teaching and learning of Physics. They were also encouraged not to completely abandon the use of the conventional teaching method.</p> Oluseyi Abraham Olaniyi Moshood Ayinde Hassan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-07-06 2019-07-06 4 2 53 68 Women’s Rights in Afghanistan: From Muslims’ Perspective <p>Considering the logic of evolution of societies, the calamitous situation of women can be both changed and controlled. With the emergence of Islam, issue of women was more deeply raised in religious and intellectual discussions. At a time when having a daughter considered a shame on Arab families, a religion emerged after which assigned key social, political and even economic rights for women. Holy Quran says there is no superiority of nations over nations, races over races and men over women unless by divine piety and good action. One of the emphatic rules of Islam is that acquiring knowledge is an obligatory act for both men and women.&nbsp; On the issue of education secondary data shows that most people believe Islam and Shari'a not only emphasize that girls and women should acquire Islamic education (98%), but they allow women and girls to study all levels of formal educational system. Unfortunately said, in Afghanistan, more women are scarified by men’s decisions.</p> Omid Afghan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-07-10 2019-07-10 4 2 69 77 Assessment of Menstrual Waste Disposal and the Environment: The Role of Adult Education in Nigeria <p>The phenomenon of menstruation portends great impact on the environment and its calls for concern. Environmental effect of menstrual hygiene and related issues has been downplayed Nigeria. This study was conducted to assess menstrual waste disposal practices and it’s implication on the environment. A self-constructed questionnaire was used to elicit information for the survey design research. While multistage sampling technique was used to select 194 participants of females within the age range of 20 and 59 in Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State. The four research questions raised for the study were answered descriptively while the two hypotheses were tested using inferential statistics at 0.05 level of significance. Finding revealed among others that though the female adults were aware of the environmental implication of indiscriminate menstrual waste disposal, they practices does not correlate with their awareness because menstrual waste disposal knowledge is not in public domain, while the knowledge gained is informal from older women who themselves lack adequate knowledge. It was therefore recommended among others, that adults deserves to be empowerment by Adult Education through Menstrual Waste Education (MWE)&nbsp;&nbsp; to improve hygiene as well as the environment during menstrual cycle due to the precarious situation it places on women.</p> Adekunle Olatumile Elizabeth Aanuoluwapo Ajayi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-07-10 2019-07-10 4 2 78 87 The Practice of School-Based Management in Ondo State Public Secondary Schools: Implication of School Location <p>The practice of School-Based Management (SBM) has been widely liked to variety of wide positives in schools and increasingly acceptable in major developed and developing nations, however, the disposition and acceptance of the SMB policy remained unclear in Ondo State, Nigeria. In Nigeria, there is paucity of literature addressing the role of school location in the practice of SBM policy. This study, therefore examined the practicality of SBM in public secondary schools in Ondo State and the implication of school location. Descriptive survey design was adopted by the study. Key players from sixty (60) public secondary schools in Ondo State participated in the current study using purposive sampling techniques. In determine the efficiencies and effectiveness of School-Based Management Committees, participant were opened to Effective School-Based Management Index (E-SBM-INDEX). The instrument reported a strong overall Cronbach alpha of 0.97, while the subscales factors entails, power decentralization (α =.92); facilities obligation (α =.73); monitoring and evaluation (α =.65); recruitment and retrenchment (α =.85); and financial obligation (α =.71). Information on socio-demographic factors and geographical location of schools were also obtained from the participants. Descriptive analysis and T-Test of independent sample were used to analyze data and accepted at P <u>&lt;</u> 0.05. Respondents’ mean age was 49.5±11.5 years. It was revealed that 35% of the public schools engaged practice effective SBM in Ondo State, while 65% of public schools engaged were practicing ineffective SBM. Furthermore, It was revealed that there was significant difference in the practice of SBM in rural and urban public secondary schools in Ondo State (T (58) = 26.60; P &lt; 0.01), such that, public secondary schools located in the rural area ( = 75.20, SD = 1.80) practice effective SBM’s policy than counterparts located in the urban area ( = 34.97, SD = 02.67). Majorly the practice of SBM in public secondary school remained ineffective in Ondo State. The practice of SBM in rural and urban public secondary schools in Ondo State is significantly different. Public secondary schools located in the rural area of Ondo State practice effectively SBM’s policy than public secondary schools located in the urban area of Ondo State. It is recommended that the government should be pro-active in creating an enabling environment in terms of policy upon which SBM can be practice effectively and efficiently.</p> Olaseni Vivian Morenike ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-07-14 2019-07-14 4 2 88 93 Comparative Analysis of English Language Learners' Errors across Different Linguistic Backgrounds <p>The focus of the study is the comparative analysis of English as a second language learners’ errors across different linguistic backgrounds in Nigeria. The study adopted the descriptive research design. The population for the study consisted of senior secondary school students in Ondo State. A simple random sampling technique was employed to select four secondary schools and 26 students from four schools in Akoko Ondo State(12 male, 14 female). The sample consisted students from three linguistic backgrounds (Igbo, Yoruba, and Hausa). The instrument used to gather data was a verbal ability test. The reliability of the instrument was determined through the test- retest method (r = 0.83). Four research questions were answered. The findings revealed that there was a significant difference in the scores of students from different linguistic backgrounds in their use of tenses, pronouns, spellings and pronunciation. On the basis of these findings it was recommended that students are to be given time to pay attention to their use of English tenses, pronoun, spelling and pronunciation so as to maximize their academic potentials and possibilities. There is need to give teachers chance to experience in-service training and seminars. This will make them conversant with current development in pedagogy and language itself.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Kehinde Olufemi Ogunyemi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-07-15 2019-07-15 4 2 94 101 Impacts of Formative Assessment on EFL Students’ Academic Performance at Kandahar University <p>This study investigated the implementation of formative assessment and its impacts on EFL students’ academic performance at Kandahar University. The study is descriptive in nature; quantitative questionnaire was used to collect data from one hundred and fifty EFL students at all four levels selected through random sampling method. The collected data was analyzed by using IBM 24 version of SPSS and results are reported in tables by showing means, standard deviation, percentage and frequency. The major findings revealed that teachers are using formative assessment as part of their plan, allocating time for peer feedback, methods and tools of assessment teachers are using are group work, assignment, homework, presentation, project work which had positive impacts on students’ academic performance and improved final exam grades. Study also disclosed that teachers are valuing more summative assessment than formative, some important methods of assessment are ignored by teachers aversively affected their lower performance.</p> Javed Sahibzada Abdul Nafi Himat ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-07 2019-08-07 4 2 102 111 Teacher’s Attitudes Towards the Effects of Lesson Plan on Classroom Management: A Case Study of Sufi Sahab Zakur High School <p>The present study has been conducted to investigate the teacher’s attitudes towards the effects of lesson plan. Furthermore, the second goal of the study is to investigate the effects of lesson plan on classroom management. Similarly, the questionnaire had two parts the first part had 6 items and the second part had 6 items too and applied randomly. Besides, the data analyzing was performed in SPSS (version, 21) and bring out the mean and standard division. Finally, the findings reveled the importance and role of lesson planning on classroom management numbered as follow: (1) Planning is the most appropriate skill that the teacher needs to create a successful one. (2) The effective teacher is the one who plan effective lessons. (3) Preparation is the most important thing a teacher does. In addition, the following factors are related to the effects of lesson plan on classroom management. (1) Planning is a necessary skill to develop an organized learning environment. (2) Good planning minimizes class management problems. (3) A successful learning environment is the result of well lesson plan.</p> Mehdi Moradi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-10 2019-08-10 4 2 112 120 Transitions in Postcoloniality as a Revolutionary Thought across the Subject Societies <p>There has to be the necessary change across the pages of history amongst the various fields of knowledge in our social structure. In this context, there has been emergence of a thought that went contrary to the established thought of colonial propaganda. This counters colonial discourse no doubt too many years to have its roots strong in the soil of social, cultural, and psychological phenomena of our society. Though, literary theory, in general, is a way of understanding the nature and function of literary creation. It seeks the relation of a text to the author and to the society by presenting a thesis or the antithesis in literary field that in turn speaks for social forces. This means to evaluate, to elucidate and to interpret the literary processes for the social discourses have always been very effective for the social change. This directly or indirectly leads the effected society to get changed in terms of thinking process. Hence, leads to the intellectually rich and psychologically mature civilization.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Mudasir Rahman Najar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-10 2019-08-10 4 2 121 126 In-Service Teachers’ Perception of Continuing Education Programmes in Two African Universities <p>The study compared the in-service teachers’ perception of continuing education programmes from two universities in Africa; University of Zululand, South Africa (UZ), and Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Nigeria, (AAU). The study covers the impact, effectiveness and efficiency of UZ and AAU on in-service teachers’ of continuing education programmes. The target population and sample for the study were the current teachers of continuing education programmes of these universities. The instrument tagged ‘Questionnaire for Perceptions of Continuing Education Programmes by in-service Teachers’&nbsp;&nbsp; (QPCEPIT) was designed and used for data collection. The descriptive survey research design of ex-post facto was adopted for the study. 150 questionnaires were randomly used for pilot study, carried out at Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria, whilst 500 questionnaires each were administered at both UZ and AAU of which 365 and 321 responses were valid and analysed respectively. Four research questions were carefully formulated to ascertain the perceptions of continuing education programmes by in-service teachers in the selected universities. Inferential statistics was used to draw conclusions and test the research questions for the study. The results of the comparative study revealed that the conclusiveness of the learning environment, the nature and quality of student support services provided, the quality and learners’ perception of course modules or materials, accommodation problems and venue of the programme were the major predictors for motivation of in-service teachers of the programme. Based on the findings of the study recommendations were made on how the programme will have impact on the in-service teachers and how the universities that are running the programme will be effectively and efficiently manage the programme for the acceleration and advancement of socio-economic growth in South Africa, Nigeria, and the world at large.</p> Francis O. Olaniyi Dumisani R. Nzima ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-10 2019-08-10 4 2 127 135 The Validity of Okun’s Law: An Empirical Evidence for Nigeria <p>This paper empirically investigates the relationship between economic growth and unemployment in Nigeria under the Okun’s Law framework. The Auto Regressive Distributed Lag model approach, the ARDL Bounds Test and Cointegration Test were employed in this paper. Economic Growth was also regressed on unemployment, log of industrial output, log of net foreign assets, log of foreign direct investment and population growth so as to know the impact of these variables on output. The research findings indicated that high the Okun’s specification does not hold in the Nigeria, the impact of economic growth on unemployment is negative and insignificant. We did however find that there is a positive impact of unemployment on economic growth, meaning that the phenomena of jobless growth may be in play in the economy. The Johansen Co-integration test failed to establish evidence of long run relationship between GDP, industrial output, unemployment, foreign direct investment net foreign assets and population growth. The ECM could not be employed because the variables were integrated of different orders. It was however found there exist a significant positive relationship between the aforementioned variables and GDP except for population growth. The government should consider the Industrial Sector as a priority sector in a bid for better economic growth and development. Population control measures should also be put in play to ensure that the population does not exceed the economic carrying capacity. The government should also play an important role in abating unemployment in the economy using direct and indirect schemes and strategies.</p> Divine Ndubuisi Obodoechi Charles Uchenna Onuoha ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-11 2019-08-11 4 2 136 144 Ecolinguistics in a Multilingual Society: A Case Study of Adekunle Ajasin University, Nigeria <p>Language, biology, and culture have been intimately related throughout human history. We cannot dispute the fact that we live in an ecolinguistic world, where human beings relate with at least one language. Language has pioneered many interracial relationships and historical milestones. Language is a necessity for basic communication and cultural diversity in human society. In dealing with linguistic aspect of acculturation in a multilingual society, it is pertinent to trace the ecology of language from an individual point of view. This study examined ecolinguistics in a multilingual society using Adekunle Ajasin University as a case study.The research design adopted was descriptive research of survey type. The sample consists of 180 students drawn randomly from the six faculties in the school. Data was collected through a self-constructed questionnaire(r=0.79) distributed to the students. Data collected was analysed using the descriptive statistics of frequency count and simple percentage for the demographic information of the respondents and analysis of research questions. Findings from the data collected unveil the rate at which Nigeria’s native languages are endangered and derogated by foreign languages. Specifically, it was revealed that language is used as the agent of cultural and bio-diversity. Findings of this study also disclosed that English language is predominantly infused into the linguistic culture of the students of Adekunle Ajasin University Akungba-Akoko as it is used as the students’ instrument and expression of thoughts. Conclusions are made by looking critically into the making of individuals’ bio-cultural diversity. It is then concluded that Nigerian’s native languages are considered informal and have a way of limiting ones thought thereby leading to the robustness of foreign language(s) and endangerment of these native languages. This study recommended and advocated for the enrichment and robustness of Nigerian native languages by making sure that our culture is promoted via these native languages.</p> Kehinde Olufemi Ogunyemi Abiodun Emmanuel Bada ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-11 2019-08-11 4 2 145 152 Awareness and Readiness of Librarians towards the Use of Social Media for Information Service Delivery in Higher Institutions of Learning in Bauchi State <p>This paper examines the librarians’ awareness of social media, types of social media used by librarians, perception and readiness of librarians towards the use of social media, the level of use of social media and factors facilitating the use of social media in higher institutions library in Bauchi state. The rationale behind the subject matter (social media) was to expose librarians to the potentials of the use of social media in the library, particularly with regards to effective and efficient information service delivery to meet the ever growing demands and needs of sophisticated users. In doing this, quantitative research methodology using cross-sectional survey design was used which helped the researcher gather large amount of data that can be easily organised and manipulated into reports for analysis. A well developed and structured questionnaire was used to generate data from the respondents.</p> Asma’u Muhammad Yusuf ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-04 2019-09-04 4 2 153 157 Design of Inventory Management System for Herat University Using Component-Based Methodology <p style="text-align: justify;">The focus of CBSD is to assemble the previously-existing software components and to develop new and large software systems with new characteristics. It emphasizes on the use of Off the Shelf (OTS) components instead of building a system from the scratch. The first objective of this thesis is to discuss about the Component-Based Software Development (CBSD) as one of the advanced methodologies with the example of an inventory management system for Herat University, in Afghanistan. The second objective examines more closely whether CBSD can be a proper approach in Afghanistan, particularly in context of Herat University Inventory Management System (HU-IMS).This paper only focuses on selected phases such as requirement analysis and system design of HU-IMS life cycle. JavaBeans component model and user requirement analysis formulate to design the two separate components of HU-IMS (User Management and Resource Management).Both components are designed in a general way as they either can join as a part of a pre-functional system such as Higher Education Management Information System (HEMIS) or to be used for the purpose to develop new software systems. The results of the thesis confirm that considering CBSD when designing HU-IMS can be a proper approach in the Afghanistan scenario. However, the CBSD, particularly in Afghanistan context, has its own challenges and risks as all other approaches have. Since there are not many localized libraries and repositories available, the first challenge is to find and select the proper component which can be difficult and time-consuming; and the second is the adaptation and localization of the found component insomuch as most of the software developers are unfamiliar with the emerging concept.</p> Somaia Zabihi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-24 2019-11-24 4 2 158 166 Definition of Natural Languages Using Context-free Grammer: In Context of Dari Language <p style="text-align: justify;">Formal definition of a natural language lets computers understand it; the languages have challenging complexity to come under representation of any formal language. Modeling assumptions, using formal languages, we can approximate the languages; and better approximation we do, more complexities of formal languages are resolved. Objective is to study current researches and possibilities to model Dari as a context-free language. Researchers have worked for more than 6 decades on definition of syntax of natural languages using context-free grammer. It is crucial that computer scientists to be able to thoroughly understand about which category of formal languages the natural language exist in in. In overall, our skill to decide the grammar type of natural languages performs a significant role in our capability to parse it. This review article concludes that discussed issue of the context-freeness of a certain language is regularly reliant on upon the level of complexity of the language. The common of languages investigated in this regard are languages of European family and Indo-Aryan languages liker Dari, Arabic and Pashto have not been adequately fortunate to be devoted thorough researches in this regard.</p> Mahmood Asgharzada ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-24 2019-11-24 4 2 167 170