American International Journal of Multidisciplinary Scientific Research 2020-09-04T20:51:07+00:00 Managing Editorial Board Open Journal Systems Evaluation of Salivary pH Changes with Probiotic, Baking Soda and Mineral Water Rinse Among Individuals with Low Caries Experience 2020-08-24T10:21:26+00:00 Lubna Farooq Muhammad Rashid Ahmed Muhammad Aitmaududdolah Khan Anum Mahmood Zara Khan Samreen Khurram Mahnoor Farzand <p><em>Background:</em> Dental caries is a multifactorial disease; it causes decay in tooth and leads to unbearable pain and expensive dental procedures. One of potential risk factor that favor the caries process is acidic pH that a person faces usually after consumption of any food or drinks. Various mouth rinses are evaluated to normalize the salivary pH to break the chain of caries pathophysiology.</p> <p><em>Objective:</em> To evaluate the role of probiotic, baking soda and mineral water rinses on pH of Saliva.</p> <p><em>Materials and methods: </em>It were a cross sectional study conducted in institute of Karachi from -10 January to 25 June 2020. Out of 150 participants 60 qualified the inclusion criteria and were explained about the procedure of the study after their agreement they were divided into three groups each group comprised of 20 participants. Group 1 was given probiotic mouth rinse; Group 2 was given baking soda mouth rinse and in Group 3 mineral water rinses were given. They were told to rinse the oral cavity before and after the food consumption and pre and post salivary changes were recorded.</p> <p><em>Results: </em>Significant (p-value = 0.001) change in salivary pH was observed with baking soda and mineral water rinses however probiotic mouth rinse did not show significant (p-value = 0.22) change.</p> <p><em>Conclusion: </em>Rinsing with Baking soda and mineral water mouth rinses increased the salivary pH to normal.</p> 2020-06-11T17:24:34+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## An Assessment on the Locational Pattern of Petrol Filling Stations along Lasu-Isheri Road Corridor 2020-08-24T10:21:25+00:00 Esther O. Akinsulire Samson O. Fadare <p>This study aimed at assessing the location and spatial distribution of petrol filling stations along LASU/Isheri Road, Ojo, Lagos state. The objectives are to map out all the petrol filling stations in along Lasu/Isheri road; to examine the volume of traffic along the road corridor; to determine the contribution of petrol filling stations to the traffic volume on the road, and to ascertain the road traffic challenges that are caused by the petrol filling stations (PFS). Geographical Positioning System (GPS) was employed to collect primary data; also, questionnaires and traffic count sheets were employed. The study found that the PFS along the road corridor is clustered with a Z-score of -7.34 and NNI of 0.440285. Also, the maximum peak hour volume was estimated to be 4198.6 pcu/hr. The PFS along the corridor are seen to contribute significantly to the traffic volume on the corridor. Finally, the dominant traffic challenges along the corridor include traffic gridlock which sometimes results into road traffic crashes which are triggered by the concentration of PFS in the study area, the proximity of PFS to a road intersection, overflow of the queue into the roadway, and to a minimal extent parking of tankers along the roadway and lack of setback. This study suggests strategies that can be adopted for locating PFS to ensure the free flow of traffic along the road corridor where they are located.</p> 2020-08-13T00:41:24+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## International Trade and the Economies of Developing Countries 2020-09-04T20:51:07+00:00 Nwabueze Prince Okenna Babatunde Moses Adesanya <p>The economic significance and benefits of foreign trade also known as international trade to the economies of developing countries cannot be overemphasized. Its role and contributions to the gross domestic earnings, employment generation, economic development, and poverty reduction in these underdeveloped countries such as Nigeria, Ghana, Benin Republic, and others have been too glaring especially in agrarian economies with fertile arable land.The main aim of this paper was to examine in-depth the contributions and relationship between international trade and the economic development of developing African countries.&nbsp; Furthermore, this paper recommended stringent macroeconomic policies that when formulated would encourage and increase the multiplier effect of these (foreign) trades. Part of these policies is targeted towards exchange rates, tariffs, import and export duties, subsidies, and actions that promote international trade.The research further concluded that internationaltradeis a key macroeconomic driver that must be encouraged in developing African countries as its multiplier effects have the potentials of driving the needed development goals of these nations. And for this to be achieved, these nations (developing countries) must formulate workable localized macroeconomic policies that suit and drive their interest as against borrowed economic policies from the developed European and Asian nations. Some of the recommendations proffered include adoption of friendly and pro-active export promotion policies, availability of grants, aids, subsidies, and loans, mechanization of the agrarian sector, adoption of flexible exchange rate, etc.This study made use of time series secondary data obtained from the World Development Indicators (WDI) and the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) of developing African countries for a period between 2000 and 2019. A forecast of 15 years was also initiated using these data to provide a long-term insight into the benefits of these trading activities on the GDP of developing countries.</p> 2020-09-04T20:49:05+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##