American International Journal of Social Science Research http://www.cribfb.com/journal/index.php/aijssr en-US info@cribfb.com (Managing Editor) info.cribfb@gmail.com (Administrator) Sat, 01 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.1.1.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 The Pair Lion Motif in Shiva Temple of Medieval Bengal: Its Source and Evaluation http://www.cribfb.com/journal/index.php/aijssr/article/view/138 <p>Lions, particularly male lions, have been an important symbol for thousands of years and appear as a theme in cultures across Europe, Asia, and Africa. The cultural significance of stucco pair lion motif in Shiva temples of Bengal and relates with various types of representation of the same motif found in others. The pair Lion used as stucco (Jora Shiva Temple, Muroli, Jessore district). Shiva is the braver among the all God and Goddesses in Hindu religion during the early period and still. Thus we have found many Shiva temple build in Bengal (present West Bengal(Paschimbango) and Bangladesh). This article try to analyses about how the pair lion motif is depicting of the Shiva temple and what is the relation between Shiva and lion under Mythology and Purana. Shiva is the second most important male deity of Hindu. The usual Shiva –lingam’s which were mainly worshipped in the temples and under trees or in an open space. We would have tried to decipher about Pair Lion Motif decoration of 18th – 19th century Shiva temple of Bangladesh. Those would have to help the history of evaluation of stylized art waves is coming out by its&nbsp; decoration&nbsp; motif with ritual, beliefs and faith of Bengal society. We may look at the artistic tradition of lion sculptures those are widely found from different parts of west Bengal and Bangladesh.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Sk. Zohirul Islam ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://www.cribfb.com/journal/index.php/aijssr/article/view/138 Sat, 01 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Socio-Economic Profile of the Union Members in APSRTC:A Case Study of Visakhapatnam City http://www.cribfb.com/journal/index.php/aijssr/article/view/139 <p>Trade unions help in accelerated pace of economic development in many ways. They are helping in the recruitment and selection of workers, inculcating discipline among the workforce, enabling settlement of industrial disputes in a rational manner and helping social adjustments with their activities. Workers have to adjust themselves to the new working conditions, the new rules and policies. Workers coming from different backgrounds may become disorganized, unsatisfied and frustrated. Unions will help them in such adjustment. The present study is an attempt to portray the socio-economic-profile of the sample respondents (union members) with reference to Visakhapatnam City.</p> R. Lydia, B. Ravi Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://www.cribfb.com/journal/index.php/aijssr/article/view/139 Thu, 06 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0000 A Comparative Study of Pecola and Gyanoda: Sex, Violence and Beauty in the Bluest Eye and Arakshaniya http://www.cribfb.com/journal/index.php/aijssr/article/view/140 <p>Saratchandra Chattopadhyay (1876-1938) in Arakshaniya (1916) has pictured Gyanoda, a socially abandoned and oppressed Bengali Hindu girl of 12/13 expected to be married off. Unable to endure the sexual violence and cruelties thrown upon her, Pecola in The Bluest Eye (1970) by Toni Morrison (b. 1931) looses her sanity. The colonial- society-constructed idea of beauty, the hurling insults of her schoolmates and neighbors, the perverted assurance of achieving beauty from the pedophile Soaphead Church and above all the sexual violence that she receives from her father leaves her in a dark world. Apart from her friends, she receives sympathy only from socially unaccepted ‘ruined’ women. Unlike Pecola, Gyanoda was restored to the world of love and affection primarily by her mother, younger aunt and then by Atul, her assumed love. Gyanoda, though rejected and humiliated by the family and the society, was not a total rejection as Pecola was. She managed to live on though not in a respected manner. This paper looks into Pecola’s psychic procedural patterns to show how she becomes an object of perversion and violence, which along with the established idea of beauty takes her to the verge of insanity. A comparative study has been done between Pecola and Gyanoda, two characters from two entirely different ethnicities and cultures. However, surprisingly both the characters encounter social hostility for their common characteristic “ugliness.” The very presumption of beauty, violence, and sex lead these young girls to the different worlds of their own. Black and female identities occupy very real political spaces of diaspora, dispossession and resistance. What is complicated is the simultaneity of suffering and power, marginalization and threat, submission and narcissism, which accre to Black and women’s bodies and their representation in racist cultures.--from “Feminism and the Colonial Body” by Kadiatu Kanneth.</p> Sajal Sarkar, Moshref Jahan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://www.cribfb.com/journal/index.php/aijssr/article/view/140 Sun, 23 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0000 The Negative Impact of Boko Haram Insurgency on Women and Children in Northern Nigeria: An Assessment http://www.cribfb.com/journal/index.php/aijssr/article/view/141 <p>This paper studies the negative impacts of Boko Haram insurgency on women and children in northern Nigeria. Indeed, Boko Haram has affected the lives of the general populace in northern Nigeria, precisely women and children, by turning the women to widows and children to orphans, the negative events of the sect groups have continually coursing a serious damage to the lives and properties of the peoples in the northern region. The researcher used the Secondary source in acquiring the appropriate data. The study found that this set of individuals and their negative activities have affected the lives and properties of women and children. It is noted that many women have turned to widows and children to orphans. In view of this, the paper recommends that the government should intervein to provide the affected women and children with some empowerment programmes. It should also provide a good shelter to those that lost their husbands and residents, the government, traditional rulers, and religious leaders should help in assisting the children by enrolling them to schools like their fellow counterparts. There is a need for special rehabilitation and trauma centers in the affected states, especially for women and children who have had terrible knowledge during the insurgency period.</p> Mustapha Alhaji Ali, Ummu Atiyah Ahmad Zakuan, Mohammad Zaki bin Ahmad ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://www.cribfb.com/journal/index.php/aijssr/article/view/141 Mon, 24 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Internally Displacement and Cognitive Reasoning in Children of North Central, Nigeria http://www.cribfb.com/journal/index.php/aijssr/article/view/198 <p>The cognitive progression of displaced children has suffered major setback in Nigeria in recent time as a result of boko haram insurgency, Fulani herdsmen militia and communal clashes. Therefore, this study examines the cognitive reasoning of the children of primary and secondary school ages that are currently seeking refuge at internally displaced camps in North-Central, Nigeria. 1,222 internally displaced children were assessed using visual, numerical and verbal reasoning analysis tests respectively, developed by Barrett (2004). Of the total number of participants, 29.8% responded correctly to numerical reasoning tests, 15.6% answered correctly the verbal reasoning tests and 31.7% responded to visual analysis tests. The result showed that majority of the children could not respond correctly to reasoning and analysis tests.&nbsp; The study concludes that children are worst vulnerable to current ongoing displacement in the country and this has resulted into downfall in the educational system and cognitive improvement of the children. It is therefore recommended that quick response to IDP children in the area of education should not be ignored or neglected in case of displacement of any type by government, philanthropists and non-governmental organizations.</p> Philemon Atume Agashua, Awopetu Ronke Grace, Jonathan Iornenge Ugese ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://www.cribfb.com/journal/index.php/aijssr/article/view/198 Fri, 09 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +0000